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Magnetic resonance imaging reveals functional anatomy and biomechanics of a living dragon tree

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ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to gain in vivo insight into load-induced displacements of inner plant tissues making a non-invasive and non-destructive stress and strain analysis possible. The central aim of this study was the identification of a possible load-adapted orientation of the vascular bundles and their fibre caps as the mechanically relevant tissue in branch-stem-attachments of Dracaena marginata. The complex three-dimensional deformations that occur during mechanical loading can be analysed on the basis of quasi-three-dimensional data representations of the outer surface, the inner tissue arrangement (meristem and vascular system), and the course of single vascular bundles within the branch-stem-attachment region. In addition, deformations of vascular bundles could be quantified manually and by using digital image correlation software. This combination of qualitative and quantitative stress and strain analysis leads to an improved understanding of the functional morphology and biomechanics of D. marginata, a plant that is used as a model organism for optimizing branched technical fibre-reinforced lightweight trusses in order to increase their load bearing capacity.

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Software based and manual analysis of the displacement of vascular bundles and their fibre caps along the z-axis for individual DM10.(a) Digital image correlation results of axial region left (L) of the branch-stem-attachment. (b) Digital image correlation results of axial region centre (C) of the branch-stem-attachment. (c) Digital image correlation results of axial region right (R) of the branch-stem-attachment. (d) Displacement along the z-axis (shear and bending strains) of characteristic features of vascular bundles and their fibre caps located in the coronal regions a or b in combination with their location in the axial region left (L), centre (C) and right (R). Shown are the estimates and standard errors. (e) Displacement along the z-axis (shear and bending strains) of characteristic features of vascular bundles and their fibre caps located in the coronal regions a or b in combination with their location in the sagittal region top (I), centre (II) and bottom (III). Shown are the estimates and standard errors. For an overview of the axial and sagittal regions also see Supplementary Fig. S4.
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f7: Software based and manual analysis of the displacement of vascular bundles and their fibre caps along the z-axis for individual DM10.(a) Digital image correlation results of axial region left (L) of the branch-stem-attachment. (b) Digital image correlation results of axial region centre (C) of the branch-stem-attachment. (c) Digital image correlation results of axial region right (R) of the branch-stem-attachment. (d) Displacement along the z-axis (shear and bending strains) of characteristic features of vascular bundles and their fibre caps located in the coronal regions a or b in combination with their location in the axial region left (L), centre (C) and right (R). Shown are the estimates and standard errors. (e) Displacement along the z-axis (shear and bending strains) of characteristic features of vascular bundles and their fibre caps located in the coronal regions a or b in combination with their location in the sagittal region top (I), centre (II) and bottom (III). Shown are the estimates and standard errors. For an overview of the axial and sagittal regions also see Supplementary Fig. S4.

Mentions: Deformations that occur along the z-axis (shear and bending strains) give informations concerning the upward movement against the direction of applied loading (shear strain; positive Vz values) or downward movement in direction of applied loading (bending strain; negative Vz values) of vascular bundles and their fibre caps. Within each individual these displacements can differ between axial-, coronal- or sagittal regions (Figs 6d,e and 7d,e, Supplementary Fig. S4).


Magnetic resonance imaging reveals functional anatomy and biomechanics of a living dragon tree
Software based and manual analysis of the displacement of vascular bundles and their fibre caps along the z-axis for individual DM10.(a) Digital image correlation results of axial region left (L) of the branch-stem-attachment. (b) Digital image correlation results of axial region centre (C) of the branch-stem-attachment. (c) Digital image correlation results of axial region right (R) of the branch-stem-attachment. (d) Displacement along the z-axis (shear and bending strains) of characteristic features of vascular bundles and their fibre caps located in the coronal regions a or b in combination with their location in the axial region left (L), centre (C) and right (R). Shown are the estimates and standard errors. (e) Displacement along the z-axis (shear and bending strains) of characteristic features of vascular bundles and their fibre caps located in the coronal regions a or b in combination with their location in the sagittal region top (I), centre (II) and bottom (III). Shown are the estimates and standard errors. For an overview of the axial and sagittal regions also see Supplementary Fig. S4.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5015020&req=5

f7: Software based and manual analysis of the displacement of vascular bundles and their fibre caps along the z-axis for individual DM10.(a) Digital image correlation results of axial region left (L) of the branch-stem-attachment. (b) Digital image correlation results of axial region centre (C) of the branch-stem-attachment. (c) Digital image correlation results of axial region right (R) of the branch-stem-attachment. (d) Displacement along the z-axis (shear and bending strains) of characteristic features of vascular bundles and their fibre caps located in the coronal regions a or b in combination with their location in the axial region left (L), centre (C) and right (R). Shown are the estimates and standard errors. (e) Displacement along the z-axis (shear and bending strains) of characteristic features of vascular bundles and their fibre caps located in the coronal regions a or b in combination with their location in the sagittal region top (I), centre (II) and bottom (III). Shown are the estimates and standard errors. For an overview of the axial and sagittal regions also see Supplementary Fig. S4.
Mentions: Deformations that occur along the z-axis (shear and bending strains) give informations concerning the upward movement against the direction of applied loading (shear strain; positive Vz values) or downward movement in direction of applied loading (bending strain; negative Vz values) of vascular bundles and their fibre caps. Within each individual these displacements can differ between axial-, coronal- or sagittal regions (Figs 6d,e and 7d,e, Supplementary Fig. S4).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to gain in vivo insight into load-induced displacements of inner plant tissues making a non-invasive and non-destructive stress and strain analysis possible. The central aim of this study was the identification of a possible load-adapted orientation of the vascular bundles and their fibre caps as the mechanically relevant tissue in branch-stem-attachments of Dracaena marginata. The complex three-dimensional deformations that occur during mechanical loading can be analysed on the basis of quasi-three-dimensional data representations of the outer surface, the inner tissue arrangement (meristem and vascular system), and the course of single vascular bundles within the branch-stem-attachment region. In addition, deformations of vascular bundles could be quantified manually and by using digital image correlation software. This combination of qualitative and quantitative stress and strain analysis leads to an improved understanding of the functional morphology and biomechanics of D. marginata, a plant that is used as a model organism for optimizing branched technical fibre-reinforced lightweight trusses in order to increase their load bearing capacity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus