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Magnetic resonance imaging reveals functional anatomy and biomechanics of a living dragon tree

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to gain in vivo insight into load-induced displacements of inner plant tissues making a non-invasive and non-destructive stress and strain analysis possible. The central aim of this study was the identification of a possible load-adapted orientation of the vascular bundles and their fibre caps as the mechanically relevant tissue in branch-stem-attachments of Dracaena marginata. The complex three-dimensional deformations that occur during mechanical loading can be analysed on the basis of quasi-three-dimensional data representations of the outer surface, the inner tissue arrangement (meristem and vascular system), and the course of single vascular bundles within the branch-stem-attachment region. In addition, deformations of vascular bundles could be quantified manually and by using digital image correlation software. This combination of qualitative and quantitative stress and strain analysis leads to an improved understanding of the functional morphology and biomechanics of D. marginata, a plant that is used as a model organism for optimizing branched technical fibre-reinforced lightweight trusses in order to increase their load bearing capacity.

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Quasi-3D data representations (3D models) of outer surface and inner tissues within the branch-stem-attachment of Dracaena marginata individual DM09.The models of the unloaded ramification are coloured blue; those of the loaded condition of the same ramification are coloured yellow. (a) Model of the outer surface of the unloaded ramification and (b) the same but mechanically loaded ramification. Injuries caused by the cable strap (arrow 1) and the plastic tip (arrow 2) of the experimental setup become visible. (c,d) A 3D model overlay of the outer surface of the ramification indicates a twisting of the entire plant as the branch bends outward (arrow 3). (e,f) The overlay of the meristem models show that the tissue deforms similarly to the outer surface. (g,h) Overlaying the models of the vascular system reveals that the detailed structure of the highly complex vascular system is very difficult to analyse.
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f1: Quasi-3D data representations (3D models) of outer surface and inner tissues within the branch-stem-attachment of Dracaena marginata individual DM09.The models of the unloaded ramification are coloured blue; those of the loaded condition of the same ramification are coloured yellow. (a) Model of the outer surface of the unloaded ramification and (b) the same but mechanically loaded ramification. Injuries caused by the cable strap (arrow 1) and the plastic tip (arrow 2) of the experimental setup become visible. (c,d) A 3D model overlay of the outer surface of the ramification indicates a twisting of the entire plant as the branch bends outward (arrow 3). (e,f) The overlay of the meristem models show that the tissue deforms similarly to the outer surface. (g,h) Overlaying the models of the vascular system reveals that the detailed structure of the highly complex vascular system is very difficult to analyse.

Mentions: A qualitative analysis of deformations is realised by creating quasi-3D data representations (further simplified to 3D models) of the outer surface, lateral meristem, vascular system and single vascular bundles of the branch-stem-attachment region of both individuals which are being compared in this study (DM09 and DM10). The deformation of the lateral meristem and the vascular system (the entity of every single vascular bundle and its fibre cap) are not being shown for individual DM10, as the content of information is low and is equally given with the 3D models of DM09 shown in Fig. 1.


Magnetic resonance imaging reveals functional anatomy and biomechanics of a living dragon tree
Quasi-3D data representations (3D models) of outer surface and inner tissues within the branch-stem-attachment of Dracaena marginata individual DM09.The models of the unloaded ramification are coloured blue; those of the loaded condition of the same ramification are coloured yellow. (a) Model of the outer surface of the unloaded ramification and (b) the same but mechanically loaded ramification. Injuries caused by the cable strap (arrow 1) and the plastic tip (arrow 2) of the experimental setup become visible. (c,d) A 3D model overlay of the outer surface of the ramification indicates a twisting of the entire plant as the branch bends outward (arrow 3). (e,f) The overlay of the meristem models show that the tissue deforms similarly to the outer surface. (g,h) Overlaying the models of the vascular system reveals that the detailed structure of the highly complex vascular system is very difficult to analyse.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5015020&req=5

f1: Quasi-3D data representations (3D models) of outer surface and inner tissues within the branch-stem-attachment of Dracaena marginata individual DM09.The models of the unloaded ramification are coloured blue; those of the loaded condition of the same ramification are coloured yellow. (a) Model of the outer surface of the unloaded ramification and (b) the same but mechanically loaded ramification. Injuries caused by the cable strap (arrow 1) and the plastic tip (arrow 2) of the experimental setup become visible. (c,d) A 3D model overlay of the outer surface of the ramification indicates a twisting of the entire plant as the branch bends outward (arrow 3). (e,f) The overlay of the meristem models show that the tissue deforms similarly to the outer surface. (g,h) Overlaying the models of the vascular system reveals that the detailed structure of the highly complex vascular system is very difficult to analyse.
Mentions: A qualitative analysis of deformations is realised by creating quasi-3D data representations (further simplified to 3D models) of the outer surface, lateral meristem, vascular system and single vascular bundles of the branch-stem-attachment region of both individuals which are being compared in this study (DM09 and DM10). The deformation of the lateral meristem and the vascular system (the entity of every single vascular bundle and its fibre cap) are not being shown for individual DM10, as the content of information is low and is equally given with the 3D models of DM09 shown in Fig. 1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to gain in vivo insight into load-induced displacements of inner plant tissues making a non-invasive and non-destructive stress and strain analysis possible. The central aim of this study was the identification of a possible load-adapted orientation of the vascular bundles and their fibre caps as the mechanically relevant tissue in branch-stem-attachments of Dracaena marginata. The complex three-dimensional deformations that occur during mechanical loading can be analysed on the basis of quasi-three-dimensional data representations of the outer surface, the inner tissue arrangement (meristem and vascular system), and the course of single vascular bundles within the branch-stem-attachment region. In addition, deformations of vascular bundles could be quantified manually and by using digital image correlation software. This combination of qualitative and quantitative stress and strain analysis leads to an improved understanding of the functional morphology and biomechanics of D. marginata, a plant that is used as a model organism for optimizing branched technical fibre-reinforced lightweight trusses in order to increase their load bearing capacity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus