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Removing Noises Induced by Gamma Radiation in Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging Using a Temporal Median Filter

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) can provide information of medical radionuclides used in nuclear imaging based on Cerenkov radiation, which makes it possible for optical means to image clinical radionuclide labeled probes. However, the exceptionally weak Cerenkov luminescence (CL) from Cerenkov radiation is susceptible to lots of impulse noises introduced by high energy gamma rays generating from the decays of radionuclides. In this work, a temporal median filter is proposed to remove this kind of impulse noises. Unlike traditional CLI collecting a single CL image with long exposure time and smoothing it using median filter, the proposed method captures a temporal sequence of CL images with shorter exposure time and employs a temporal median filter to smooth a temporal sequence of pixels. Results of in vivo experiments demonstrated that the proposed temporal median method can effectively remove random pulse noises induced by gamma radiation and achieve a robust CLI image.

No MeSH data available.


Mean image of 30 CLI images filtered using median filter (a), standard deviation image of 30 CLI images filtered using median filter (b), and filtered CLI image using TM filter (c). The top is the enlarged image corresponding to the red rectangle region.
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fig8: Mean image of 30 CLI images filtered using median filter (a), standard deviation image of 30 CLI images filtered using median filter (b), and filtered CLI image using TM filter (c). The top is the enlarged image corresponding to the red rectangle region.

Mentions: To further illustrate noise suppression of TM filter, we investigate the background region outside of the mouse after filtering. If TM filter is effective for suppressing these impulse noises, there will be no noises in the background region of the filtered CL image. Due to median filter works on a single CLI image, we obtain mean and standard deviation images of 30 filtered CLI images using median filter as shown in Figures 8(a) and 8(b) to compare with TM filter. In Figure 8(a), there seem to be no noises in the background region after average of 30 filtered CLI images using median filter, but noises can be clearly seen in the enlarged image of the region of background marked with red rectangle. More noises emerge from the standard deviation image of 30 filtered CLI images using median filter in Figure 8(b). The filtered CLI image using TM filter in Figure 8(c) almost has no impulse noises, and particularly we find no noise in the enlarged background image.


Removing Noises Induced by Gamma Radiation in Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging Using a Temporal Median Filter
Mean image of 30 CLI images filtered using median filter (a), standard deviation image of 30 CLI images filtered using median filter (b), and filtered CLI image using TM filter (c). The top is the enlarged image corresponding to the red rectangle region.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5015013&req=5

fig8: Mean image of 30 CLI images filtered using median filter (a), standard deviation image of 30 CLI images filtered using median filter (b), and filtered CLI image using TM filter (c). The top is the enlarged image corresponding to the red rectangle region.
Mentions: To further illustrate noise suppression of TM filter, we investigate the background region outside of the mouse after filtering. If TM filter is effective for suppressing these impulse noises, there will be no noises in the background region of the filtered CL image. Due to median filter works on a single CLI image, we obtain mean and standard deviation images of 30 filtered CLI images using median filter as shown in Figures 8(a) and 8(b) to compare with TM filter. In Figure 8(a), there seem to be no noises in the background region after average of 30 filtered CLI images using median filter, but noises can be clearly seen in the enlarged image of the region of background marked with red rectangle. More noises emerge from the standard deviation image of 30 filtered CLI images using median filter in Figure 8(b). The filtered CLI image using TM filter in Figure 8(c) almost has no impulse noises, and particularly we find no noise in the enlarged background image.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) can provide information of medical radionuclides used in nuclear imaging based on Cerenkov radiation, which makes it possible for optical means to image clinical radionuclide labeled probes. However, the exceptionally weak Cerenkov luminescence (CL) from Cerenkov radiation is susceptible to lots of impulse noises introduced by high energy gamma rays generating from the decays of radionuclides. In this work, a temporal median filter is proposed to remove this kind of impulse noises. Unlike traditional CLI collecting a single CL image with long exposure time and smoothing it using median filter, the proposed method captures a temporal sequence of CL images with shorter exposure time and employs a temporal median filter to smooth a temporal sequence of pixels. Results of in vivo experiments demonstrated that the proposed temporal median method can effectively remove random pulse noises induced by gamma radiation and achieve a robust CLI image.

No MeSH data available.