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Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group—trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group—trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group—no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants’ elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P <0.001), the MET group also had significant strength gain (13.8%, P <0.001), which was not statistically different from that of the CST group even though the exercise intensity for the MET group was only at 30% MVC level. The CTRL group did not have significant strength changes. Surprisingly, only the MET group demonstrated a significant augmentation in the MRCP (29.3%, P <0.001); the MRCP increase in CST group was at boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

No MeSH data available.


Percent elbow flexion strength changes in conventional (CST), motor effort (MET), and no-training control (CTL) groups following a 12-week training program. There was no significant difference in pretraining strength among the 3 groups. Both the CST and MET groups had significant strength gains after training. The CTL group did not have significant strength increase. ∗∗P <0.01.
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Figure 2: Percent elbow flexion strength changes in conventional (CST), motor effort (MET), and no-training control (CTL) groups following a 12-week training program. There was no significant difference in pretraining strength among the 3 groups. Both the CST and MET groups had significant strength gains after training. The CTL group did not have significant strength increase. ∗∗P <0.01.

Mentions: After the 12-week training program, both MET and CST groups had strength gains compared with the baseline (Fig. 2). There was no significant difference in pretraining strength among the groups (P = 0.77). The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.58 ± 2.94%, P <0.001). The MET group also had significant strength gains (13.83 ± 2.26%, P <0.001), which was statistically similar to that of the CST group even though the exercise intensity for the MET was only 30% of MVC level. The CTL group did not have significant strength changes (Fig. 2). The absolute strength values (in Newton [N]) before and after training were 165.1 ± 12.9 and 193.7 ± 15.0 (CST, a 28.6 increase); 175.2 ± 16.1 and 201.3 ± 22.1 (MET, a 26.1 increase); and 182.9 ± 22.4 and 176.9 ± 21.5 (CTL, a 6.0 decrease), respectively.


Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging
Percent elbow flexion strength changes in conventional (CST), motor effort (MET), and no-training control (CTL) groups following a 12-week training program. There was no significant difference in pretraining strength among the 3 groups. Both the CST and MET groups had significant strength gains after training. The CTL group did not have significant strength increase. ∗∗P <0.01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998428&req=5

Figure 2: Percent elbow flexion strength changes in conventional (CST), motor effort (MET), and no-training control (CTL) groups following a 12-week training program. There was no significant difference in pretraining strength among the 3 groups. Both the CST and MET groups had significant strength gains after training. The CTL group did not have significant strength increase. ∗∗P <0.01.
Mentions: After the 12-week training program, both MET and CST groups had strength gains compared with the baseline (Fig. 2). There was no significant difference in pretraining strength among the groups (P = 0.77). The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.58 ± 2.94%, P <0.001). The MET group also had significant strength gains (13.83 ± 2.26%, P <0.001), which was statistically similar to that of the CST group even though the exercise intensity for the MET was only 30% of MVC level. The CTL group did not have significant strength changes (Fig. 2). The absolute strength values (in Newton [N]) before and after training were 165.1 ± 12.9 and 193.7 ± 15.0 (CST, a 28.6 increase); 175.2 ± 16.1 and 201.3 ± 22.1 (MET, a 26.1 increase); and 182.9 ± 22.4 and 176.9 ± 21.5 (CTL, a 6.0 decrease), respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75&#8202;&plusmn;&#8202;7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group&mdash;trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group&mdash;trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group&mdash;no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5&#8202;sessions/week). The participants&rsquo; elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P&#8202;&lt;0.001), the MET group also had significant strength gain (13.8%, P&#8202;&lt;0.001), which was not statistically different from that of the CST group even though the exercise intensity for the MET group was only at 30% MVC level. The CTRL group did not have significant strength changes. Surprisingly, only the MET group demonstrated a significant augmentation in the MRCP (29.3%, P&#8202;&lt;0.001); the MRCP increase in CST group was at boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

No MeSH data available.