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Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012

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ABSTRACT

In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly decline of 0.84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0. 79 -0.88). The intergravid incidence showed an annual decrease of 4.2%. The average yearly incidence of intragravid and intergravid seroconversions was 0.52% (95% CI 0.45–0.61) and 0.72% (95% CI 0.67–0.77), respectively. If the difference between these rates (p < 0.001) can be explained by the effect of primary prevention such as avoiding raw meat and taking hygiene precautions when encountering cats or preparing vegetables, only ca two of seven (28%) infections were avoided by hygiene measures taken by pregnant women. Primary prevention may therefore have its limits.

No MeSH data available.


Yearly seroprevalences of pregnant women aged 15–44 years with antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, by age groups, Styria, Austria, 1995–2012 (n=158,571)
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f3: Yearly seroprevalences of pregnant women aged 15–44 years with antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, by age groups, Styria, Austria, 1995–2012 (n=158,571)

Mentions: In 1995, 43.3% (95% CI: 40.7–46.0) of the pregnant women showed antibodies against T. gondii at the first examination per pregnancy; in 2012 the seroprevalence was 31.5% (95% CI: 30.0–33.2). In the 18 years studied, the seroprevalence of women with latent infections on average decreased by 0.84% yearly (95% CI: 0.79–0.88, p < 0.001). Furthermore, we made a separate analysis of the time periods for the IIFT assay and ELISA assays (Vidia and Architect). In the time period 1995–2006, there was a decline in seroprevalence of 0.56% (95% CI: 0.46–0.66, p < 0.001) yearly, while from 2006 to 2012, there was a 1.20% annual decline (95% CI: 1.00–1.40, p < 0.001). Figure 3 shows the yearly seroprevalence according to age groups of pregnant women who showed antibodies to T. gondii at their first examination in pregnancy. Seroprevalence is shown to increase with age (p < 0.001, linear test for trend).


Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012
Yearly seroprevalences of pregnant women aged 15–44 years with antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, by age groups, Styria, Austria, 1995–2012 (n=158,571)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998422&req=5

f3: Yearly seroprevalences of pregnant women aged 15–44 years with antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, by age groups, Styria, Austria, 1995–2012 (n=158,571)
Mentions: In 1995, 43.3% (95% CI: 40.7–46.0) of the pregnant women showed antibodies against T. gondii at the first examination per pregnancy; in 2012 the seroprevalence was 31.5% (95% CI: 30.0–33.2). In the 18 years studied, the seroprevalence of women with latent infections on average decreased by 0.84% yearly (95% CI: 0.79–0.88, p < 0.001). Furthermore, we made a separate analysis of the time periods for the IIFT assay and ELISA assays (Vidia and Architect). In the time period 1995–2006, there was a decline in seroprevalence of 0.56% (95% CI: 0.46–0.66, p < 0.001) yearly, while from 2006 to 2012, there was a 1.20% annual decline (95% CI: 1.00–1.40, p < 0.001). Figure 3 shows the yearly seroprevalence according to age groups of pregnant women who showed antibodies to T. gondii at their first examination in pregnancy. Seroprevalence is shown to increase with age (p < 0.001, linear test for trend).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly decline of 0.84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0. 79 -0.88). The intergravid incidence showed an annual decrease of 4.2%. The average yearly incidence of intragravid and intergravid seroconversions was 0.52% (95% CI 0.45&ndash;0.61) and 0.72% (95% CI 0.67&ndash;0.77), respectively. If the difference between these rates (p&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.001) can be explained by the effect of primary prevention such as avoiding raw meat and taking hygiene precautions when encountering cats or preparing vegetables, only ca two of seven (28%) infections were avoided by hygiene measures taken by pregnant women. Primary prevention may therefore have its limits.

No MeSH data available.