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Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012

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ABSTRACT

In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly decline of 0.84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0. 79 -0.88). The intergravid incidence showed an annual decrease of 4.2%. The average yearly incidence of intragravid and intergravid seroconversions was 0.52% (95% CI 0.45–0.61) and 0.72% (95% CI 0.67–0.77), respectively. If the difference between these rates (p < 0.001) can be explained by the effect of primary prevention such as avoiding raw meat and taking hygiene precautions when encountering cats or preparing vegetables, only ca two of seven (28%) infections were avoided by hygiene measures taken by pregnant women. Primary prevention may therefore have its limits.

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Flowchart explaining the selection of data for the analysis of prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis, mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995–2012
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f1: Flowchart explaining the selection of data for the analysis of prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis, mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995–2012

Mentions: For the study period of 1995–2012, there were 363,228 screening tests. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 353,599 screening tests were analysed from 103,316 women and their 158,571 pregnancies (Figure 1). The median age in all pregnancies (first examination) was 27.2 years (interquartile range (IQR) 23.9–30.7) in 1995 and 29.8 years (IQR 25.9–33.5) in 2012.


Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012
Flowchart explaining the selection of data for the analysis of prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis, mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995–2012
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998422&req=5

f1: Flowchart explaining the selection of data for the analysis of prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis, mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995–2012
Mentions: For the study period of 1995–2012, there were 363,228 screening tests. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 353,599 screening tests were analysed from 103,316 women and their 158,571 pregnancies (Figure 1). The median age in all pregnancies (first examination) was 27.2 years (interquartile range (IQR) 23.9–30.7) in 1995 and 29.8 years (IQR 25.9–33.5) in 2012.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly decline of 0.84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0. 79 -0.88). The intergravid incidence showed an annual decrease of 4.2%. The average yearly incidence of intragravid and intergravid seroconversions was 0.52% (95% CI 0.45–0.61) and 0.72% (95% CI 0.67–0.77), respectively. If the difference between these rates (p < 0.001) can be explained by the effect of primary prevention such as avoiding raw meat and taking hygiene precautions when encountering cats or preparing vegetables, only ca two of seven (28%) infections were avoided by hygiene measures taken by pregnant women. Primary prevention may therefore have its limits.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus