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Edema, Hyperpigmentation, Induration: 3 Skin Signs Heralding Danger in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Skin changes are common in patients on dialysis. This study focused on putative associations of specific skin findings with comorbidities and mortality.

We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 508 patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy in 7 centers in the German State of North Rhine Westphalia. Data had been collected by interview, from patient files, and from targeted physical examination in an earlier prospective study screening hemodialysis patients for the presence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. While on dialysis, patients’ extremities had been examined for any of the following: edematous skin at the lower extremities, hyperpigmentation, induration, and xerosis cutis. Our present data analyses focused on associated mortality and comorbidities.

Five hundred eight patients (median age 71 years, range 20.0–95.9; n = 292 men) had agreed to participate in the initial study: 48% (n = 243) were diabetics and 46% (n = 232) had been diagnosed with coronary heart disease. On examination, 86% of patients (n = 439) presented with at least 1 of the prespecified skin changes. Skin edema (n = 89; 18%), hyperpigmentation (n = 74; 15%), and induration (n = 9; 2%) were independently associated with increased mortality over 24 months (P < 0.002, P < 0.030, and P < 0.020, respectively).

In our study, prespecified skin changes indicated an increased mortality risk in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Routinely assessing the skin of dialysis patients represents a simple, reliable, and cost effective means of identifying those at greatest risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A–C) Association of specific skin findings with mortality. In the course of the 24 mo observational period, edematous skin changes (A: log-rank; P < 0.002); hyperpigmentation (B: log-rank; P < 0.030); and induration (C: log-rank; P < 0.020) were associated with reduced survival.
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Figure 1: (A–C) Association of specific skin findings with mortality. In the course of the 24 mo observational period, edematous skin changes (A: log-rank; P < 0.002); hyperpigmentation (B: log-rank; P < 0.030); and induration (C: log-rank; P < 0.020) were associated with reduced survival.

Mentions: In the univariate analysis, presence of skin edema showed the strongest association with death after 2 years, followed by hyperpigmentation, each with a near double prevalence in those who died. Induration although diagnosed in only 2% of patients was also associated with death, while dry skin was diagnosed at a similar rate in survivors and in those who died (Table 2). Figure 1A–C shows survival curves for patients presenting with and without edema, hyperpigmentation, and induration, respectively.


Edema, Hyperpigmentation, Induration: 3 Skin Signs Heralding Danger in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis
(A–C) Association of specific skin findings with mortality. In the course of the 24 mo observational period, edematous skin changes (A: log-rank; P < 0.002); hyperpigmentation (B: log-rank; P < 0.030); and induration (C: log-rank; P < 0.020) were associated with reduced survival.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998382&req=5

Figure 1: (A–C) Association of specific skin findings with mortality. In the course of the 24 mo observational period, edematous skin changes (A: log-rank; P < 0.002); hyperpigmentation (B: log-rank; P < 0.030); and induration (C: log-rank; P < 0.020) were associated with reduced survival.
Mentions: In the univariate analysis, presence of skin edema showed the strongest association with death after 2 years, followed by hyperpigmentation, each with a near double prevalence in those who died. Induration although diagnosed in only 2% of patients was also associated with death, while dry skin was diagnosed at a similar rate in survivors and in those who died (Table 2). Figure 1A–C shows survival curves for patients presenting with and without edema, hyperpigmentation, and induration, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Skin changes are common in patients on dialysis. This study focused on putative associations of specific skin findings with comorbidities and mortality.

We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 508 patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy in 7 centers in the German State of North Rhine Westphalia. Data had been collected by interview, from patient files, and from targeted physical examination in an earlier prospective study screening hemodialysis patients for the presence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. While on dialysis, patients&rsquo; extremities had been examined for any of the following: edematous skin at the lower extremities, hyperpigmentation, induration, and xerosis cutis. Our present data analyses focused on associated mortality and comorbidities.

Five hundred eight patients (median age 71 years, range 20.0&ndash;95.9; n&#8202;=&#8202;292 men) had agreed to participate in the initial study: 48% (n&#8202;=&#8202;243) were diabetics and 46% (n&#8202;=&#8202;232) had been diagnosed with coronary heart disease. On examination, 86% of patients (n&#8202;=&#8202;439) presented with at least 1 of the prespecified skin changes. Skin edema (n&#8202;=&#8202;89; 18%), hyperpigmentation (n&#8202;=&#8202;74; 15%), and induration (n&#8202;=&#8202;9; 2%) were independently associated with increased mortality over 24 months (P&#8202;&lt;&#8202;0.002, P&#8202;&lt;&#8202;0.030, and P&#8202;&lt;&#8202;0.020, respectively).

In our study, prespecified skin changes indicated an increased mortality risk in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Routinely assessing the skin of dialysis patients represents a simple, reliable, and cost effective means of identifying those at greatest risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus