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Mycobacterial Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Frequency Trends in Taiwan of Mycobacterial Clinical Isolates From 2002 to 2014

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infections, is one of the most widespread infectious diseases worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) also cause chronic pulmonary infections, however, NTM infection is generally overlooked.

This study analyzed the frequencies of MTBC and NTM clinical isolates from 181,132 specimens obtained from patients in Taiwan suspected of having a pulmonary mycobacterial infection from 2002 to 2014. The resistant rates to 4 first-line antibiotics (isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin, and streptomycin) of 9079 clinical MTBC isolates were also examined by the modified agar proportion method.

Overall, the mycobacterial isolation rate was 8.65%, and this consisted of MTBC isolation rate of 5.01% and NTM isolation rate of 3.63%. The prevalence of MTBC isolates among the identified mycobacterial strains could be seen to decrease significantly from 82.5% in 2002 to 41.18% in 2014. Notably, the corresponding NTM prevalence increased 3.36 fold from 17.54% in 2002 to 58.82% in 2014. The frequencies of MTBC and NTM isolates showed a reciprocal trend with the crossing over occurring in the years 2010 and 2011. Although the resistance rates of the MTBC isolates to isoniazid and streptomycin were relatively stable over the study period, resistance rates of the MTBC isolates against rifampicin and ethambutol fluctuated across the study period. Overall, the incidence of multidrug resistance was relatively consistent at about 1.74%.

The diagnosis, identification, and susceptibility tests for NTM should be standardized and integrated into appropriate clinical settings to cope with the increase in NTM infections. In addition, the documentation of the antibiotic resistance rates of MTBC clinical isolates to the antibiotic treatments most often clinically prescribed over a decade provides valuable clues and reference points for effective mycobacterial control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Resistance rates (% in y-axis) of 9079 MTBC clinical isolates against the 4 first-line antituberculous drugs, namely INH, RMP, EMB, and SM during study years (x-axis). EMB = ethambutol, MTBC = Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, INH = isoniazid, RMP = rifampicin, SM = streptomycin.
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Figure 2: Resistance rates (% in y-axis) of 9079 MTBC clinical isolates against the 4 first-line antituberculous drugs, namely INH, RMP, EMB, and SM during study years (x-axis). EMB = ethambutol, MTBC = Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, INH = isoniazid, RMP = rifampicin, SM = streptomycin.

Mentions: Among the 9079 MTBC isolates, the INH-0.2 and INH-1 resistant rates were relatively stable averaging 6.15% and 4.30%, respectively (Table 3 and Figure 2). A similar trend was observed for SM-2 and SM-10 resistance, which had average rates of 6.71% and 4.20%, respectively. This contrasts with the dramatic changes detected in RMP and EMB resistance rates that were observed, with the RMP resistance rate ranging from 0.25% in 2010 to 19.34% in 2007 (4.89% on average) and the EMB resistance rate significantly decreasing from 34.9% in 2002 to 0.88% in 2014 (8.04% on average). Finally, the incidence of MDR TB was consistent during the study period with the average rate being 1.74%.


Mycobacterial Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Frequency Trends in Taiwan of Mycobacterial Clinical Isolates From 2002 to 2014
Resistance rates (% in y-axis) of 9079 MTBC clinical isolates against the 4 first-line antituberculous drugs, namely INH, RMP, EMB, and SM during study years (x-axis). EMB = ethambutol, MTBC = Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, INH = isoniazid, RMP = rifampicin, SM = streptomycin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998363&req=5

Figure 2: Resistance rates (% in y-axis) of 9079 MTBC clinical isolates against the 4 first-line antituberculous drugs, namely INH, RMP, EMB, and SM during study years (x-axis). EMB = ethambutol, MTBC = Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, INH = isoniazid, RMP = rifampicin, SM = streptomycin.
Mentions: Among the 9079 MTBC isolates, the INH-0.2 and INH-1 resistant rates were relatively stable averaging 6.15% and 4.30%, respectively (Table 3 and Figure 2). A similar trend was observed for SM-2 and SM-10 resistance, which had average rates of 6.71% and 4.20%, respectively. This contrasts with the dramatic changes detected in RMP and EMB resistance rates that were observed, with the RMP resistance rate ranging from 0.25% in 2010 to 19.34% in 2007 (4.89% on average) and the EMB resistance rate significantly decreasing from 34.9% in 2002 to 0.88% in 2014 (8.04% on average). Finally, the incidence of MDR TB was consistent during the study period with the average rate being 1.74%.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infections, is one of the most widespread infectious diseases worldwide. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) also cause chronic pulmonary infections, however, NTM infection is generally overlooked.

This study analyzed the frequencies of MTBC and NTM clinical isolates from 181,132 specimens obtained from patients in Taiwan suspected of having a pulmonary mycobacterial infection from 2002 to 2014. The resistant rates to 4 first-line antibiotics (isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin, and streptomycin) of 9079 clinical MTBC isolates were also examined by the modified agar proportion method.

Overall, the mycobacterial isolation rate was 8.65%, and this consisted of MTBC isolation rate of 5.01% and NTM isolation rate of 3.63%. The prevalence of MTBC isolates among the identified mycobacterial strains could be seen to decrease significantly from 82.5% in 2002 to 41.18% in 2014. Notably, the corresponding NTM prevalence increased 3.36 fold from 17.54% in 2002 to 58.82% in 2014. The frequencies of MTBC and NTM isolates showed a reciprocal trend with the crossing over occurring in the years 2010 and 2011. Although the resistance rates of the MTBC isolates to isoniazid and streptomycin were relatively stable over the study period, resistance rates of the MTBC isolates against rifampicin and ethambutol fluctuated across the study period. Overall, the incidence of multidrug resistance was relatively consistent at about 1.74%.

The diagnosis, identification, and susceptibility tests for NTM should be standardized and integrated into appropriate clinical settings to cope with the increase in NTM infections. In addition, the documentation of the antibiotic resistance rates of MTBC clinical isolates to the antibiotic treatments most often clinically prescribed over a decade provides valuable clues and reference points for effective mycobacterial control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus