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Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on Alzheimer's disease in vitro and in vivo

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPA) consists of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate, which are strong antioxidants that are beneficial to health and may attenuate or prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of GSPA on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell viability were determined using cell counting kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, whereas apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) were measured via flow cytometry analysis. The effect of GSPA administration on the behavior and memory of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS-1) double transgenic mice was assessed using a Morris water maze. APP Aβ peptides and tau hyperphosphorylation were examined by western blotting; whereas the expression levels of PS-1 were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared with pathological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Data from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that GSPA significantly alleviated Aβ25–35 cytotoxicity and LDH leakage ratio, inhibited apoptosis and increased Ψm. The findings from the in vivo experiments showed a significant enhancement in cognition and spatial memory ability, an improvement in the pathology of APP and tau protein and a decrease in PS-1 mRNA expression levels. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that GSPA may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD or may, at the very least, improve the quality of life of patients with AD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Congo red staining (magnification, ×200) of the (A) control; (B) APP/PS1 model; (C) APP/PS1 plus donepezil; (D) APP/PS1 plus low dose GSPA (50 mg/kg/day); and (E) APP/PS1 plus high dose GSPA (100 mg/kg/day) groups. APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin-1; GSPA, grape seed proanthocyanidin.
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f8-etm-0-0-3530: Congo red staining (magnification, ×200) of the (A) control; (B) APP/PS1 model; (C) APP/PS1 plus donepezil; (D) APP/PS1 plus low dose GSPA (50 mg/kg/day); and (E) APP/PS1 plus high dose GSPA (100 mg/kg/day) groups. APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin-1; GSPA, grape seed proanthocyanidin.

Mentions: Congo red was used to stain the amyloid plaques in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. The results demonstrated that amyloid plaques were distributed in the molecular layer of the hippocampus, and rare amyloid plaques were detected in the pyramidal cell layer. Amyloid plaques exhibited a light red dispersion without distinct boundaries and plaque staining was demonstrated to be denser in the hippocampi of the APP/PS1 model group, as compared with the hippocampi of the control group. The molecular layer exhibited an increased percentage of positive amyloid plaque areas, as compared with the control group. Plaque staining of APP/PS1 in the donepezil group and the low dose and high dose GSPA groups were lighter after GSPA or donepezil hydrochloride oral administration for 2 months. Positively stained areas of amyloid plaques were markedly reduced, as compared with the APP/PS1 model group (Fig. 8). The results suggest that GSPA is able to alleviate amyloid plaques in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice.


Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on Alzheimer's disease in vitro and in vivo
Congo red staining (magnification, ×200) of the (A) control; (B) APP/PS1 model; (C) APP/PS1 plus donepezil; (D) APP/PS1 plus low dose GSPA (50 mg/kg/day); and (E) APP/PS1 plus high dose GSPA (100 mg/kg/day) groups. APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin-1; GSPA, grape seed proanthocyanidin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998082&req=5

f8-etm-0-0-3530: Congo red staining (magnification, ×200) of the (A) control; (B) APP/PS1 model; (C) APP/PS1 plus donepezil; (D) APP/PS1 plus low dose GSPA (50 mg/kg/day); and (E) APP/PS1 plus high dose GSPA (100 mg/kg/day) groups. APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin-1; GSPA, grape seed proanthocyanidin.
Mentions: Congo red was used to stain the amyloid plaques in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. The results demonstrated that amyloid plaques were distributed in the molecular layer of the hippocampus, and rare amyloid plaques were detected in the pyramidal cell layer. Amyloid plaques exhibited a light red dispersion without distinct boundaries and plaque staining was demonstrated to be denser in the hippocampi of the APP/PS1 model group, as compared with the hippocampi of the control group. The molecular layer exhibited an increased percentage of positive amyloid plaque areas, as compared with the control group. Plaque staining of APP/PS1 in the donepezil group and the low dose and high dose GSPA groups were lighter after GSPA or donepezil hydrochloride oral administration for 2 months. Positively stained areas of amyloid plaques were markedly reduced, as compared with the APP/PS1 model group (Fig. 8). The results suggest that GSPA is able to alleviate amyloid plaques in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPA) consists of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate, which are strong antioxidants that are beneficial to health and may attenuate or prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of GSPA on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell viability were determined using cell counting kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, whereas apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) were measured via flow cytometry analysis. The effect of GSPA administration on the behavior and memory of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS-1) double transgenic mice was assessed using a Morris water maze. APP Aβ peptides and tau hyperphosphorylation were examined by western blotting; whereas the expression levels of PS-1 were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared with pathological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Data from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that GSPA significantly alleviated Aβ25–35 cytotoxicity and LDH leakage ratio, inhibited apoptosis and increased Ψm. The findings from the in vivo experiments showed a significant enhancement in cognition and spatial memory ability, an improvement in the pathology of APP and tau protein and a decrease in PS-1 mRNA expression levels. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that GSPA may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD or may, at the very least, improve the quality of life of patients with AD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus