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Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on Alzheimer's disease in vitro and in vivo

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPA) consists of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate, which are strong antioxidants that are beneficial to health and may attenuate or prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of GSPA on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell viability were determined using cell counting kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, whereas apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) were measured via flow cytometry analysis. The effect of GSPA administration on the behavior and memory of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS-1) double transgenic mice was assessed using a Morris water maze. APP Aβ peptides and tau hyperphosphorylation were examined by western blotting; whereas the expression levels of PS-1 were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared with pathological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Data from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that GSPA significantly alleviated Aβ25–35 cytotoxicity and LDH leakage ratio, inhibited apoptosis and increased Ψm. The findings from the in vivo experiments showed a significant enhancement in cognition and spatial memory ability, an improvement in the pathology of APP and tau protein and a decrease in PS-1 mRNA expression levels. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that GSPA may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD or may, at the very least, improve the quality of life of patients with AD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hematoxylin and eosin staining (magnification, ×400) of the (A) control; (B) APP/PS1 model; (C) APP/PS1 plus donepezil; (D) APP/PS1 plus low dose GSPA (50 mg/kg/day); and (E) APP/PS1 plus high dose GSPA (100 mg/kg/day) groups. APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin-1; GSPA, grape seed proanthocyanidin.
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f7-etm-0-0-3530: Hematoxylin and eosin staining (magnification, ×400) of the (A) control; (B) APP/PS1 model; (C) APP/PS1 plus donepezil; (D) APP/PS1 plus low dose GSPA (50 mg/kg/day); and (E) APP/PS1 plus high dose GSPA (100 mg/kg/day) groups. APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin-1; GSPA, grape seed proanthocyanidin.

Mentions: HE staining revealed no remarkable neuronal abnormalities in the hippocampus of mice in the control group. The pyramidal cells in the CA1 region were arranged neatly and tightly, the cells were round and intact with clear dark blue stained nuclei. However, obvious hippocampal histopathological damage was demonstrated in the APP/PS1 model group. The pyramidal layered structure was disintegrated and neuronal loss was detected in the CA1 region. Neurons exhibited pyknotic nuclei with a shrunken or irregular shape. Following GSPA or donepezil hydrochloride oral administration for 2 months these abnormalities were attenuated, as compared with the APP/PS1 model group. Cell morphology was regular, the cells were arranged more neatly and tightly, and cell nuclei stained clear. The APP/PS1-treated high dose GSPA group exhibited a stronger attenuation of these abnormalities, as compared with the low group, suggesting a concentration-dependent effect (Fig. 7).


Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on Alzheimer's disease in vitro and in vivo
Hematoxylin and eosin staining (magnification, ×400) of the (A) control; (B) APP/PS1 model; (C) APP/PS1 plus donepezil; (D) APP/PS1 plus low dose GSPA (50 mg/kg/day); and (E) APP/PS1 plus high dose GSPA (100 mg/kg/day) groups. APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin-1; GSPA, grape seed proanthocyanidin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998082&req=5

f7-etm-0-0-3530: Hematoxylin and eosin staining (magnification, ×400) of the (A) control; (B) APP/PS1 model; (C) APP/PS1 plus donepezil; (D) APP/PS1 plus low dose GSPA (50 mg/kg/day); and (E) APP/PS1 plus high dose GSPA (100 mg/kg/day) groups. APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin-1; GSPA, grape seed proanthocyanidin.
Mentions: HE staining revealed no remarkable neuronal abnormalities in the hippocampus of mice in the control group. The pyramidal cells in the CA1 region were arranged neatly and tightly, the cells were round and intact with clear dark blue stained nuclei. However, obvious hippocampal histopathological damage was demonstrated in the APP/PS1 model group. The pyramidal layered structure was disintegrated and neuronal loss was detected in the CA1 region. Neurons exhibited pyknotic nuclei with a shrunken or irregular shape. Following GSPA or donepezil hydrochloride oral administration for 2 months these abnormalities were attenuated, as compared with the APP/PS1 model group. Cell morphology was regular, the cells were arranged more neatly and tightly, and cell nuclei stained clear. The APP/PS1-treated high dose GSPA group exhibited a stronger attenuation of these abnormalities, as compared with the low group, suggesting a concentration-dependent effect (Fig. 7).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPA) consists of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate, which are strong antioxidants that are beneficial to health and may attenuate or prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of GSPA on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell viability were determined using cell counting kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, whereas apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) were measured via flow cytometry analysis. The effect of GSPA administration on the behavior and memory of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS-1) double transgenic mice was assessed using a Morris water maze. APP Aβ peptides and tau hyperphosphorylation were examined by western blotting; whereas the expression levels of PS-1 were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared with pathological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Data from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that GSPA significantly alleviated Aβ25–35 cytotoxicity and LDH leakage ratio, inhibited apoptosis and increased Ψm. The findings from the in vivo experiments showed a significant enhancement in cognition and spatial memory ability, an improvement in the pathology of APP and tau protein and a decrease in PS-1 mRNA expression levels. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that GSPA may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD or may, at the very least, improve the quality of life of patients with AD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus