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Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on Alzheimer's disease in vitro and in vivo

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPA) consists of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate, which are strong antioxidants that are beneficial to health and may attenuate or prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of GSPA on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell viability were determined using cell counting kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, whereas apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) were measured via flow cytometry analysis. The effect of GSPA administration on the behavior and memory of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS-1) double transgenic mice was assessed using a Morris water maze. APP Aβ peptides and tau hyperphosphorylation were examined by western blotting; whereas the expression levels of PS-1 were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared with pathological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Data from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that GSPA significantly alleviated Aβ25–35 cytotoxicity and LDH leakage ratio, inhibited apoptosis and increased Ψm. The findings from the in vivo experiments showed a significant enhancement in cognition and spatial memory ability, an improvement in the pathology of APP and tau protein and a decrease in PS-1 mRNA expression levels. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that GSPA may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD or may, at the very least, improve the quality of life of patients with AD.

No MeSH data available.


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Grape seed proanthocyanidin partially reversed Aβ25–35-induced cytotoxicity. (A) Cell viability was assessed using a cell counting kit-8 reduction assay. (B) Cell death was determined by LDH release into the culture media during amyloid β25–35 treatment. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean (n=6). *P<0.01, as compared with the control group; **P<0.05 and ***P<0.01, as compared with the Aβ25–35-treated group. LDH, lactate dehydrogenase.
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f3-etm-0-0-3530: Grape seed proanthocyanidin partially reversed Aβ25–35-induced cytotoxicity. (A) Cell viability was assessed using a cell counting kit-8 reduction assay. (B) Cell death was determined by LDH release into the culture media during amyloid β25–35 treatment. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean (n=6). *P<0.01, as compared with the control group; **P<0.05 and ***P<0.01, as compared with the Aβ25–35-treated group. LDH, lactate dehydrogenase.

Mentions: Treatment of PC12 cells with 20 µM Aβ25–35 for 24 h significantly reduced the estimated viable cell number to 65.9% of the control (P<0.01; Fig. 3A). However, when PC12 cells were pretreated for 2 h with GSPA (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml, respectively) Aβ25–35-induced cytotoxicity was significantly reduced to 69.5% of control viability at 12.5 µg/ml (P<0.05), 70.7% at 25 µg/ml (P<0.01), 84.8% at 50 µg/ml (P<0.01), and 86% at 100 µg/ml (P<0.01).


Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on Alzheimer's disease in vitro and in vivo
Grape seed proanthocyanidin partially reversed Aβ25–35-induced cytotoxicity. (A) Cell viability was assessed using a cell counting kit-8 reduction assay. (B) Cell death was determined by LDH release into the culture media during amyloid β25–35 treatment. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean (n=6). *P<0.01, as compared with the control group; **P<0.05 and ***P<0.01, as compared with the Aβ25–35-treated group. LDH, lactate dehydrogenase.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998082&req=5

f3-etm-0-0-3530: Grape seed proanthocyanidin partially reversed Aβ25–35-induced cytotoxicity. (A) Cell viability was assessed using a cell counting kit-8 reduction assay. (B) Cell death was determined by LDH release into the culture media during amyloid β25–35 treatment. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean (n=6). *P<0.01, as compared with the control group; **P<0.05 and ***P<0.01, as compared with the Aβ25–35-treated group. LDH, lactate dehydrogenase.
Mentions: Treatment of PC12 cells with 20 µM Aβ25–35 for 24 h significantly reduced the estimated viable cell number to 65.9% of the control (P<0.01; Fig. 3A). However, when PC12 cells were pretreated for 2 h with GSPA (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml, respectively) Aβ25–35-induced cytotoxicity was significantly reduced to 69.5% of control viability at 12.5 µg/ml (P<0.05), 70.7% at 25 µg/ml (P<0.01), 84.8% at 50 µg/ml (P<0.01), and 86% at 100 µg/ml (P<0.01).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPA) consists of catechin, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate, which are strong antioxidants that are beneficial to health and may attenuate or prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of GSPA on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell viability were determined using cell counting kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, whereas apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (&Psi;m) were measured via flow cytometry analysis. The effect of GSPA administration on the behavior and memory of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS-1) double transgenic mice was assessed using a Morris water maze. APP A&beta; peptides and tau hyperphosphorylation were examined by western blotting; whereas the expression levels of PS-1 were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared with pathological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Data from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that GSPA significantly alleviated A&beta;25&ndash;35 cytotoxicity and LDH leakage ratio, inhibited apoptosis and increased &Psi;m. The findings from the in vivo experiments showed a significant enhancement in cognition and spatial memory ability, an improvement in the pathology of APP and tau protein and a decrease in PS-1 mRNA expression levels. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that GSPA may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD or may, at the very least, improve the quality of life of patients with AD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus