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Interaction between periodontitis and liver diseases

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is an oral disease that is highly prevalent worldwide, with a prevalence of 30–50% of the population in developed countries, but only ~10% present with severe forms. It is also estimated that periodontitis results in worldwide productivity losses amounting to ~54 billion USD yearly. In addition to the damage it causes to oral health, periodontitis also affects other types of disease. Numerous studies have confirmed the association between periodontitis and systemic diseases, such as diabetes, respiratory disease, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also indicated that periodontitis may participate in the progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as affecting liver transplantation. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are currently no reviews elaborating upon the possible links between periodontitis and liver diseases. Therefore, the current review summarizes the human trials and animal experiments that have been conducted to investigate the correlation between periodontitis and liver diseases. Furthermore, in the present review, certain mechanisms that have been postulated to be responsible for the role of periodontitis in liver diseases (such as bacteria, pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress) are considered. The aim of the review is to introduce the hypothesis that periodontitis may be important in the progression of liver disease, thus providing dentists and physicians with an improved understanding of this issue.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Periodontitis and liver disease. Periodontitis elevates ALT and GGT levels in patients with NAFLD. LC patients exhibit greater clinical attachment loss while the possible effect of periodontitis on LC has not, to the best of our knowledge, been established. HCC patients with periodontitis are associated with higher JIS scores than those with a healthy periodontal status. LT patients with periodontitis require LT after a shorter period and have a lower MELD score resulting in fewer tooth extractions. NAFLD, LC, HCC, and LT patients have poorer periodontal status than general population. ALT, alanine transaminase; GGT, γ-glutamyl transferase; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; LC, liver cirrhosis; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; JIS, Japan integrated staging; LT, liver transplantation; MELD, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease.
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f1-br-0-0-718: Periodontitis and liver disease. Periodontitis elevates ALT and GGT levels in patients with NAFLD. LC patients exhibit greater clinical attachment loss while the possible effect of periodontitis on LC has not, to the best of our knowledge, been established. HCC patients with periodontitis are associated with higher JIS scores than those with a healthy periodontal status. LT patients with periodontitis require LT after a shorter period and have a lower MELD score resulting in fewer tooth extractions. NAFLD, LC, HCC, and LT patients have poorer periodontal status than general population. ALT, alanine transaminase; GGT, γ-glutamyl transferase; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; LC, liver cirrhosis; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; JIS, Japan integrated staging; LT, liver transplantation; MELD, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease.

Mentions: Periodontitis and LD significantly impact health. The associations between periodontitis and NAFLD, LC, HCC, and LT have previously been investigated (Fig. 1). Certain pathological features are shared by periodontitis and systemic diseases, such as DM and CVDs, may exert similar effects on the liver. Among the three mechanisms (including bacteria, pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress), various bacteria exist in the dental plaque, some of which are more dominant in patients with severe periodontitis, may significantly contribute to the linking of other pathological mechanisms (Fig. 2). Although periodontitis is a common disease, in the majority of cases, it can be prevented and cured. However, due to the fact that compared with other life-threatening diseases, such as LC and CVDs, periodontitis seems relatively harmless, it is common for patients with severe LD to neglect to their oral hygiene, even when they present with periodontitis. This phenomenon is not limited to patients; doctors also neglect the potential damage caused by periodontitis to the liver. The aim of the current review was to highlight the association between periodontitis and LD, in the hope that individuals who suffer from LD will attend to their periodontal health and, by employing simple dental health strategies, improve their liver condition.


Interaction between periodontitis and liver diseases
Periodontitis and liver disease. Periodontitis elevates ALT and GGT levels in patients with NAFLD. LC patients exhibit greater clinical attachment loss while the possible effect of periodontitis on LC has not, to the best of our knowledge, been established. HCC patients with periodontitis are associated with higher JIS scores than those with a healthy periodontal status. LT patients with periodontitis require LT after a shorter period and have a lower MELD score resulting in fewer tooth extractions. NAFLD, LC, HCC, and LT patients have poorer periodontal status than general population. ALT, alanine transaminase; GGT, γ-glutamyl transferase; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; LC, liver cirrhosis; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; JIS, Japan integrated staging; LT, liver transplantation; MELD, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998044&req=5

f1-br-0-0-718: Periodontitis and liver disease. Periodontitis elevates ALT and GGT levels in patients with NAFLD. LC patients exhibit greater clinical attachment loss while the possible effect of periodontitis on LC has not, to the best of our knowledge, been established. HCC patients with periodontitis are associated with higher JIS scores than those with a healthy periodontal status. LT patients with periodontitis require LT after a shorter period and have a lower MELD score resulting in fewer tooth extractions. NAFLD, LC, HCC, and LT patients have poorer periodontal status than general population. ALT, alanine transaminase; GGT, γ-glutamyl transferase; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; LC, liver cirrhosis; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; JIS, Japan integrated staging; LT, liver transplantation; MELD, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease.
Mentions: Periodontitis and LD significantly impact health. The associations between periodontitis and NAFLD, LC, HCC, and LT have previously been investigated (Fig. 1). Certain pathological features are shared by periodontitis and systemic diseases, such as DM and CVDs, may exert similar effects on the liver. Among the three mechanisms (including bacteria, pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress), various bacteria exist in the dental plaque, some of which are more dominant in patients with severe periodontitis, may significantly contribute to the linking of other pathological mechanisms (Fig. 2). Although periodontitis is a common disease, in the majority of cases, it can be prevented and cured. However, due to the fact that compared with other life-threatening diseases, such as LC and CVDs, periodontitis seems relatively harmless, it is common for patients with severe LD to neglect to their oral hygiene, even when they present with periodontitis. This phenomenon is not limited to patients; doctors also neglect the potential damage caused by periodontitis to the liver. The aim of the current review was to highlight the association between periodontitis and LD, in the hope that individuals who suffer from LD will attend to their periodontal health and, by employing simple dental health strategies, improve their liver condition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is an oral disease that is highly prevalent worldwide, with a prevalence of 30–50% of the population in developed countries, but only ~10% present with severe forms. It is also estimated that periodontitis results in worldwide productivity losses amounting to ~54 billion USD yearly. In addition to the damage it causes to oral health, periodontitis also affects other types of disease. Numerous studies have confirmed the association between periodontitis and systemic diseases, such as diabetes, respiratory disease, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also indicated that periodontitis may participate in the progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as affecting liver transplantation. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are currently no reviews elaborating upon the possible links between periodontitis and liver diseases. Therefore, the current review summarizes the human trials and animal experiments that have been conducted to investigate the correlation between periodontitis and liver diseases. Furthermore, in the present review, certain mechanisms that have been postulated to be responsible for the role of periodontitis in liver diseases (such as bacteria, pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress) are considered. The aim of the review is to introduce the hypothesis that periodontitis may be important in the progression of liver disease, thus providing dentists and physicians with an improved understanding of this issue.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus