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Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs.

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General pathway showing metabolism, transport, and biodegradation of iron oxide NPs.Abbreviation: NPs, nanoparticles.
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f3-nsa-9-049: General pathway showing metabolism, transport, and biodegradation of iron oxide NPs.Abbreviation: NPs, nanoparticles.

Mentions: Currently, iron oxide NPs have wide applications in various fields such as in medical sciences, whereas a lower number of studies report uptake and biodistribution of iron NPs (Figure 3). Size, shape, and surface characterization of iron NPs determine their biological distribution135 and can involve opsonization (serum protein interaction) and particle cell interaction.136 Various biodistributation studies report blood, spleen, liver, and kidney as probable localization for the NPs, and preferentially accumulation occurs in liver and spleen.137 Recent studies report that ultrasmall iron oxide NPs can be used as potent MRI contrast agents.27,138 This MRI system is very important in the visualization of bioevents, such as gene expression, and metastasis at cellular and subcellular levels.139


Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles
General pathway showing metabolism, transport, and biodegradation of iron oxide NPs.Abbreviation: NPs, nanoparticles.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998023&req=5

f3-nsa-9-049: General pathway showing metabolism, transport, and biodegradation of iron oxide NPs.Abbreviation: NPs, nanoparticles.
Mentions: Currently, iron oxide NPs have wide applications in various fields such as in medical sciences, whereas a lower number of studies report uptake and biodistribution of iron NPs (Figure 3). Size, shape, and surface characterization of iron NPs determine their biological distribution135 and can involve opsonization (serum protein interaction) and particle cell interaction.136 Various biodistributation studies report blood, spleen, liver, and kidney as probable localization for the NPs, and preferentially accumulation occurs in liver and spleen.137 Recent studies report that ultrasmall iron oxide NPs can be used as potent MRI contrast agents.27,138 This MRI system is very important in the visualization of bioevents, such as gene expression, and metastasis at cellular and subcellular levels.139

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs.

No MeSH data available.