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Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs.

No MeSH data available.


Flowchart of sonochemical synthesis of iron oxide.Note: Data from a previous study.65
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f2-nsa-9-049: Flowchart of sonochemical synthesis of iron oxide.Note: Data from a previous study.65

Mentions: Iron oxide can be synthesized by the decomposition/sonolysis of organometallic precursors. Polymers, organic capping agents, or structural hosts are used to limit the growth of the NPs.64Figure 2 represents the general steps of the synthesis of iron oxide using sonolysis technique. Ultrasonic irradiation mainly causes cavitation in an aqueous medium, where the formation, growth, and collapse of microbubbles occur.65 Cavitation can create a temperature of around 5,000°C and a pressure of >1,800 KPa, which facilitates many unusual chemical reactions.66 Thermal induction mainly offers crystalline NPs, while ultrasonic induction yields amorphous NPs.67 Pinkas et al67 studied the sonochemical synthesis of 3 nm-sized yttrium iron oxide NPs. Globular agglomerates, analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and TEM, confirmed that they were embedded in an acetate matrix. However, stoichiometry can be achieved by Y and Fe molar ratio as starting materials.7


Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles
Flowchart of sonochemical synthesis of iron oxide.Note: Data from a previous study.65
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998023&req=5

f2-nsa-9-049: Flowchart of sonochemical synthesis of iron oxide.Note: Data from a previous study.65
Mentions: Iron oxide can be synthesized by the decomposition/sonolysis of organometallic precursors. Polymers, organic capping agents, or structural hosts are used to limit the growth of the NPs.64Figure 2 represents the general steps of the synthesis of iron oxide using sonolysis technique. Ultrasonic irradiation mainly causes cavitation in an aqueous medium, where the formation, growth, and collapse of microbubbles occur.65 Cavitation can create a temperature of around 5,000°C and a pressure of >1,800 KPa, which facilitates many unusual chemical reactions.66 Thermal induction mainly offers crystalline NPs, while ultrasonic induction yields amorphous NPs.67 Pinkas et al67 studied the sonochemical synthesis of 3 nm-sized yttrium iron oxide NPs. Globular agglomerates, analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and TEM, confirmed that they were embedded in an acetate matrix. However, stoichiometry can be achieved by Y and Fe molar ratio as starting materials.7

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs.

No MeSH data available.