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Evaluation and follow-up of cognitive functions in patients with minor stroke and transient ischemic attack

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: We aimed to examine the incidence of cognitive impairment among patients with stroke, the associated risk factors, progression of the cognitive impairment, and the association between the localization of the lesion(s) as detected by magnetic resonance imaging and the affected areas of cognitive function.

Methods: A total of 40 patients over 18 years of age enduring a transient ischemic stroke or minor stroke within the past 3 months who had a minimum life expectancy of 1 year were included in this study. Same number, age-, and sex-matched individuals were included as controls. Patients were inquired on the presence of risk factors for stroke. A series of neuropsychological test batteries were administered in patient and control subjects for assessing cognitive functions. These tests were readministered at 6 and 12 months of follow-up to assess the progression of cognitive functions.

Results: In this study among the patients with stroke, a significant impairment was seen in multiple cognitive functional tests following ischemic stroke as compared to control groups. The most common risk factors for stroke included hypertension (72.5%), hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking. The number of cognitive domains with an impairment was highest (in four cognitive tests) among those with coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation, followed by those who had a >50% stenosis in Doppler (three cognitive tests). These findings suggest that the frequency of risk factors associated with stroke does not correlate with the frequency of risk factors associated with cognitive dysfunction. The stroke localizations were classified among the patients with stroke and reviewed in accordance with cognitive impairment.

Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests, clinical findings, and imaging studies should be used to document the poststroke cognitive dysfunction.

No MeSH data available.


Construction skills and visual memory and visuospatial function results in study groups at baseline.Abbreviation: SD, standard deviation.
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f5-ndt-12-2039: Construction skills and visual memory and visuospatial function results in study groups at baseline.Abbreviation: SD, standard deviation.

Mentions: A significant worsening in the instrumental scores was detected among patients with stroke within the first month following the incident as compared to controls (P<0.01) (Figure 1). There were no significant changes from baseline in MMSE and forward counting in study groups (P>0.05), while significantly lower scores were obtained in backward counting and calculation skills in patients with stroke (P<0.01) (Figure 2). Although the two groups were comparable in terms of word list recall and word list recognition skills (P>0.05), an assessment of word list memory and overall scores showed significant worsening among patients with stroke than controls (P<0.01) (Figure 3). Abstraction skills were significantly reduced in patients with stroke (P<0.01) (Figure 4). There were no differences in praxis measurements in either group. Clock drawing test results were similar across the groups (P>0.05), while significantly lower scores in construction skills, visual memory, and visuospatial functions overall were detected among patients with stroke (P<0.01) (Figure 5). Boston Naming Test results did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05), while FAB was significantly lower at baseline in patients with stroke (P<0.01) (Figure 6).


Evaluation and follow-up of cognitive functions in patients with minor stroke and transient ischemic attack
Construction skills and visual memory and visuospatial function results in study groups at baseline.Abbreviation: SD, standard deviation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4998017&req=5

f5-ndt-12-2039: Construction skills and visual memory and visuospatial function results in study groups at baseline.Abbreviation: SD, standard deviation.
Mentions: A significant worsening in the instrumental scores was detected among patients with stroke within the first month following the incident as compared to controls (P<0.01) (Figure 1). There were no significant changes from baseline in MMSE and forward counting in study groups (P>0.05), while significantly lower scores were obtained in backward counting and calculation skills in patients with stroke (P<0.01) (Figure 2). Although the two groups were comparable in terms of word list recall and word list recognition skills (P>0.05), an assessment of word list memory and overall scores showed significant worsening among patients with stroke than controls (P<0.01) (Figure 3). Abstraction skills were significantly reduced in patients with stroke (P<0.01) (Figure 4). There were no differences in praxis measurements in either group. Clock drawing test results were similar across the groups (P>0.05), while significantly lower scores in construction skills, visual memory, and visuospatial functions overall were detected among patients with stroke (P<0.01) (Figure 5). Boston Naming Test results did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05), while FAB was significantly lower at baseline in patients with stroke (P<0.01) (Figure 6).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: We aimed to examine the incidence of cognitive impairment among patients with stroke, the associated risk factors, progression of the cognitive impairment, and the association between the localization of the lesion(s) as detected by magnetic resonance imaging and the affected areas of cognitive function.

Methods: A total of 40 patients over 18 years of age enduring a transient ischemic stroke or minor stroke within the past 3 months who had a minimum life expectancy of 1 year were included in this study. Same number, age-, and sex-matched individuals were included as controls. Patients were inquired on the presence of risk factors for stroke. A series of neuropsychological test batteries were administered in patient and control subjects for assessing cognitive functions. These tests were readministered at 6 and 12 months of follow-up to assess the progression of cognitive functions.

Results: In this study among the patients with stroke, a significant impairment was seen in multiple cognitive functional tests following ischemic stroke as compared to control groups. The most common risk factors for stroke included hypertension (72.5%), hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking. The number of cognitive domains with an impairment was highest (in four cognitive tests) among those with coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation, followed by those who had a &gt;50% stenosis in Doppler (three cognitive tests). These findings suggest that the frequency of risk factors associated with stroke does not correlate with the frequency of risk factors associated with cognitive dysfunction. The stroke localizations were classified among the patients with stroke and reviewed in accordance with cognitive impairment.

Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests, clinical findings, and imaging studies should be used to document the poststroke cognitive dysfunction.

No MeSH data available.