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Disintegrins from Snake Venoms and their Applications in Cancer 
 Research and Therapy

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Integrins regulate diverse functions in cancer pathology and in tumor cell development and contribute to important processes such as cell shape, survival, proliferation, transcription, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion. A number of snake venom proteins have the ability to interact with integrins. Among these are the disintegrins, a family of small, non-enzymatic, and cysteine-rich proteins found in the venom of numerous snake families. The venom proteins may have a potential role in terms of novel therapeutic leads for cancer treatment. Disintegrin can target specific integrins and as such it is conceivable that they could interfere in important processes involved in carcinogenesis, tumor growth, invasion and migration. Herein we present a survey of studies involving the use of snake venom disintegrins for cancer detection and treatment. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship of integrins with cancer and to present examples as to how certain disintegrins can detect and affect biological processes related to cancer. This in turn will illustrate the great potential of these molecules for cancer research. Furthermore, we also outline several new approaches being created to address problems commonly associated with the clinical application of peptide-based drugs such as instability, immunogenicity, and availability.

No MeSH data available.


Diagram with the human integrins and the active site present in snake venom disintegrins (consisting of a triad of amino acids) able to interact with them. The relation of integrins with specific receptors is provided by alpha chains and is represented in different colors.
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Figure 1: Diagram with the human integrins and the active site present in snake venom disintegrins (consisting of a triad of amino acids) able to interact with them. The relation of integrins with specific receptors is provided by alpha chains and is represented in different colors.

Mentions: Much of the classic literature regarding cancer has given integrins a crucial role in tumorigenesis, affecting tumor initiation, promotion, and progression [15, 16]. Integrins are a family of heterodimeric transmembrane proteins formed by the noncovalent association of α- and β-subunits, comprised of approximately 18 and 8 subunits types respectively, forming approximately 24 different integrins (Fig. 1) [17]. Integrins are functionally capable of promoting cell-ECM interactions as well as intercellular signaling in addition to connect the ECM to the cell cytoskeleton [5]. Extracellular divalent cations, such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, may influence the specificity and affinity of integrins when binding to their ligands [18].


Disintegrins from Snake Venoms and their Applications in Cancer 
 Research and Therapy
Diagram with the human integrins and the active site present in snake venom disintegrins (consisting of a triad of amino acids) able to interact with them. The relation of integrins with specific receptors is provided by alpha chains and is represented in different colors.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4997955&req=5

Figure 1: Diagram with the human integrins and the active site present in snake venom disintegrins (consisting of a triad of amino acids) able to interact with them. The relation of integrins with specific receptors is provided by alpha chains and is represented in different colors.
Mentions: Much of the classic literature regarding cancer has given integrins a crucial role in tumorigenesis, affecting tumor initiation, promotion, and progression [15, 16]. Integrins are a family of heterodimeric transmembrane proteins formed by the noncovalent association of α- and β-subunits, comprised of approximately 18 and 8 subunits types respectively, forming approximately 24 different integrins (Fig. 1) [17]. Integrins are functionally capable of promoting cell-ECM interactions as well as intercellular signaling in addition to connect the ECM to the cell cytoskeleton [5]. Extracellular divalent cations, such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, may influence the specificity and affinity of integrins when binding to their ligands [18].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Integrins regulate diverse functions in cancer pathology and in tumor cell development and contribute to important processes such as cell shape, survival, proliferation, transcription, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion. A number of snake venom proteins have the ability to interact with integrins. Among these are the disintegrins, a family of small, non-enzymatic, and cysteine-rich proteins found in the venom of numerous snake families. The venom proteins may have a potential role in terms of novel therapeutic leads for cancer treatment. Disintegrin can target specific integrins and as such it is conceivable that they could interfere in important processes involved in carcinogenesis, tumor growth, invasion and migration. Herein we present a survey of studies involving the use of snake venom disintegrins for cancer detection and treatment. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship of integrins with cancer and to present examples as to how certain disintegrins can detect and affect biological processes related to cancer. This in turn will illustrate the great potential of these molecules for cancer research. Furthermore, we also outline several new approaches being created to address problems commonly associated with the clinical application of peptide-based drugs such as instability, immunogenicity, and availability.

No MeSH data available.