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Microfluidic Approaches to Synchrotron Radiation-Based Fourier Transform Infrared (SR-FTIR) Spectral Microscopy of Living Biosystems

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ABSTRACT

A long-standing desire in biological and biomedical sciences is to be able to probe cellular chemistry as biological processes are happening inside living cells. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectral microscopy is a label-free and nondestructive analytical technique that can provide spatiotemporal distributions and relative abundances of biomolecules of a specimen by their characteristic vibrational modes. Despite great progress in recent years, SR-FTIR imaging of living biological systems remains challenging because of the demanding requirements on environmental control and strong infrared absorption of water. To meet this challenge, microfluidic devices have emerged as a method to control the water thickness while providing a hospitable environment to measure cellular processes and responses over many hours or days. This paper will provide an overview of microfluidic device development for SR-FTIR imaging of living biological systems, provide contrast between the various techniques including closed and open-channel designs, and discuss future directions of development within this area. Even as the fundamental science and technological demonstrations develop, other ongoing issues must be addressed; for example, choosing applications whose experimental requirements closely match device capabilities, and developing strategies to efficiently complete the cycle of development. These will require imagination, ingenuity and collaboration.

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Future directions in microfluidic FTIR devices - A) Advanced microfluidic structures such as droplet generators and cell traps could be used for sample confinement and entrapment in an array format for measurement with SR-FTIR (adapted from Huebner et al.). B) Plasmonic microstructures can be used to increase the sensitivity of IR spectromicroscopy to extremely dilute analytes in solution (adapted from Adato et al. [112]). C) SR-FTIR in open-channel devices can be hyphenated with mass spectrometry for more detailed molecular identification as demonstrated by O’Brien et al. [57]. D) The coupling of SR illumination with large area focal plane array (FPA) imaging detectors can be used to employ SR for ATR imaging and fluidic micro incubators can be used for experiments on live cells (adapted from Chan et al. [108]).
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Figure 5: Future directions in microfluidic FTIR devices - A) Advanced microfluidic structures such as droplet generators and cell traps could be used for sample confinement and entrapment in an array format for measurement with SR-FTIR (adapted from Huebner et al.). B) Plasmonic microstructures can be used to increase the sensitivity of IR spectromicroscopy to extremely dilute analytes in solution (adapted from Adato et al. [112]). C) SR-FTIR in open-channel devices can be hyphenated with mass spectrometry for more detailed molecular identification as demonstrated by O’Brien et al. [57]. D) The coupling of SR illumination with large area focal plane array (FPA) imaging detectors can be used to employ SR for ATR imaging and fluidic micro incubators can be used for experiments on live cells (adapted from Chan et al. [108]).

Mentions: Figure 5 highlights future directions. Closed-channel devices using microfabrication can gain significant additional features with the incorporation of various well-developed microfluidic modalities [98]. The incorporation of cell traps [99,100] may be beneficial to place cells in well-registered locations for time-course measurements. Such structures may also help hold motile cells in place during measurement [43]. Water-in-oil droplets further may provide an alternative opportunity to encapsulate single cells [101] and monitor metabolic activity in well-characterized and isolated environments [102].


Microfluidic Approaches to Synchrotron Radiation-Based Fourier Transform Infrared (SR-FTIR) Spectral Microscopy of Living Biosystems
Future directions in microfluidic FTIR devices - A) Advanced microfluidic structures such as droplet generators and cell traps could be used for sample confinement and entrapment in an array format for measurement with SR-FTIR (adapted from Huebner et al.). B) Plasmonic microstructures can be used to increase the sensitivity of IR spectromicroscopy to extremely dilute analytes in solution (adapted from Adato et al. [112]). C) SR-FTIR in open-channel devices can be hyphenated with mass spectrometry for more detailed molecular identification as demonstrated by O’Brien et al. [57]. D) The coupling of SR illumination with large area focal plane array (FPA) imaging detectors can be used to employ SR for ATR imaging and fluidic micro incubators can be used for experiments on live cells (adapted from Chan et al. [108]).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4997923&req=5

Figure 5: Future directions in microfluidic FTIR devices - A) Advanced microfluidic structures such as droplet generators and cell traps could be used for sample confinement and entrapment in an array format for measurement with SR-FTIR (adapted from Huebner et al.). B) Plasmonic microstructures can be used to increase the sensitivity of IR spectromicroscopy to extremely dilute analytes in solution (adapted from Adato et al. [112]). C) SR-FTIR in open-channel devices can be hyphenated with mass spectrometry for more detailed molecular identification as demonstrated by O’Brien et al. [57]. D) The coupling of SR illumination with large area focal plane array (FPA) imaging detectors can be used to employ SR for ATR imaging and fluidic micro incubators can be used for experiments on live cells (adapted from Chan et al. [108]).
Mentions: Figure 5 highlights future directions. Closed-channel devices using microfabrication can gain significant additional features with the incorporation of various well-developed microfluidic modalities [98]. The incorporation of cell traps [99,100] may be beneficial to place cells in well-registered locations for time-course measurements. Such structures may also help hold motile cells in place during measurement [43]. Water-in-oil droplets further may provide an alternative opportunity to encapsulate single cells [101] and monitor metabolic activity in well-characterized and isolated environments [102].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A long-standing desire in biological and biomedical sciences is to be able to probe cellular chemistry as biological processes are happening inside living cells. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectral microscopy is a label-free and nondestructive analytical technique that can provide spatiotemporal distributions and relative abundances of biomolecules of a specimen by their characteristic vibrational modes. Despite great progress in recent years, SR-FTIR imaging of living biological systems remains challenging because of the demanding requirements on environmental control and strong infrared absorption of water. To meet this challenge, microfluidic devices have emerged as a method to control the water thickness while providing a hospitable environment to measure cellular processes and responses over many hours or days. This paper will provide an overview of microfluidic device development for SR-FTIR imaging of living biological systems, provide contrast between the various techniques including closed and open-channel designs, and discuss future directions of development within this area. Even as the fundamental science and technological demonstrations develop, other ongoing issues must be addressed; for example, choosing applications whose experimental requirements closely match device capabilities, and developing strategies to efficiently complete the cycle of development. These will require imagination, ingenuity and collaboration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus