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Hormone replacement therapy benefits meibomian gland dysfunction in perimenopausal women.

Jin X, Lin Z, Liu Y, Lin L, Zhu B - Medicine (Baltimore) (2016)

Bottom Line: The connection between aging and MGD has long been recognized.The study also shows that perimenopausal women who use HRT can gain benefits for DE as well as for perimenopausal symptoms.Physicians caring for women who are experiencing DE related to perimenopausal symptoms should consider HRT.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: aEye Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University bDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hangzhou Maternity Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is believed to be the leading cause of dry eye (DE) disease worldwide. The connection between aging and MGD has long been recognized. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between MGD and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in perimenopausal women, and not have examined the prevalence of MGD in perimenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to address and evaluate the possible relationship between MGD and HRT in perimenopausal women.The results suggest that perimenopausal women have a high prevalence of DE related to perimenopausal symptoms. The study also shows that perimenopausal women who use HRT can gain benefits for DE as well as for perimenopausal symptoms. Physicians caring for women who are experiencing DE related to perimenopausal symptoms should consider HRT.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The standard criterion we used to evaluate the degree of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).
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Figure 1: The standard criterion we used to evaluate the degree of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).

Mentions: To evaluate MGD, we used a modified criterion based on previous reports,[16,17] which had been used in our previous studies[18] (Fig. 1). The changes of limbus palpebralis and meibomian glands orifices were noted: hyperemia, thickened, obtuse, neovessels, eczema-like appearance, keratinization, irregular shape of eyelid margin, and meibomian glands orifices that vanished. The scores of the palpebral margin were as follows: 0 = no change or imperceptible changes; 1 = mild changes; 2 = moderate variations; and 3 = serious variation. The scores of secretion characteristics were as follows: 0 = lipid clear and transparent; 1 = lipid dirty; 2 = lipid dirty with scraps; and 3 = lipid thick like toothpaste. The upper eyelid and lower eyelid score sum was the final score. The difficulty of lipid excretion using the squeeze test was evaluated. The application of pressure to the central area of the eyelid and 5 meibomian gland orifices within that area was observed and marked: 0 = expression can be observed from all glands; 1 = expression of 3 to 4 gland ducts can be observed; 2 = expression of 1 to 2 gland ducts can be observed; and 3 = no secretion can be observed. The upper eyelid and lower eyelid scores were added together to give the final score. The diagnostic criteria of the MGD included a composite score of more than 2 items which totaled 2 or more points, with or without morphological changes of the eyelid margin.


Hormone replacement therapy benefits meibomian gland dysfunction in perimenopausal women.

Jin X, Lin Z, Liu Y, Lin L, Zhu B - Medicine (Baltimore) (2016)

The standard criterion we used to evaluate the degree of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4979784&req=5

Figure 1: The standard criterion we used to evaluate the degree of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).
Mentions: To evaluate MGD, we used a modified criterion based on previous reports,[16,17] which had been used in our previous studies[18] (Fig. 1). The changes of limbus palpebralis and meibomian glands orifices were noted: hyperemia, thickened, obtuse, neovessels, eczema-like appearance, keratinization, irregular shape of eyelid margin, and meibomian glands orifices that vanished. The scores of the palpebral margin were as follows: 0 = no change or imperceptible changes; 1 = mild changes; 2 = moderate variations; and 3 = serious variation. The scores of secretion characteristics were as follows: 0 = lipid clear and transparent; 1 = lipid dirty; 2 = lipid dirty with scraps; and 3 = lipid thick like toothpaste. The upper eyelid and lower eyelid score sum was the final score. The difficulty of lipid excretion using the squeeze test was evaluated. The application of pressure to the central area of the eyelid and 5 meibomian gland orifices within that area was observed and marked: 0 = expression can be observed from all glands; 1 = expression of 3 to 4 gland ducts can be observed; 2 = expression of 1 to 2 gland ducts can be observed; and 3 = no secretion can be observed. The upper eyelid and lower eyelid scores were added together to give the final score. The diagnostic criteria of the MGD included a composite score of more than 2 items which totaled 2 or more points, with or without morphological changes of the eyelid margin.

Bottom Line: The connection between aging and MGD has long been recognized.The study also shows that perimenopausal women who use HRT can gain benefits for DE as well as for perimenopausal symptoms.Physicians caring for women who are experiencing DE related to perimenopausal symptoms should consider HRT.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: aEye Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University bDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hangzhou Maternity Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is believed to be the leading cause of dry eye (DE) disease worldwide. The connection between aging and MGD has long been recognized. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between MGD and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in perimenopausal women, and not have examined the prevalence of MGD in perimenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to address and evaluate the possible relationship between MGD and HRT in perimenopausal women.The results suggest that perimenopausal women have a high prevalence of DE related to perimenopausal symptoms. The study also shows that perimenopausal women who use HRT can gain benefits for DE as well as for perimenopausal symptoms. Physicians caring for women who are experiencing DE related to perimenopausal symptoms should consider HRT.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus