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Corolla chirality does not contribute to directed pollen movement in H ypericum perforatum ( H ypericaceae): mirror image pinwheel flowers function as radially symmetric flowers in pollination

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ABSTRACT

Corolla chirality, the pinwheel arrangement of petals within a flower, is found throughout the core eudicots. In 15 families, different chiral type flowers (i.e., right or left rotated corolla) exist on the same plant, and this condition is referred to as unfixed/enantiomorphic corolla chirality. There are no investigations on the significance of unfixed floral chirality on directed pollen movement even though analogous mirror image floral designs, for example, enantiostyly, has evolved in response to selection to direct pollinator and pollen movement. Here, we examine the role of corolla chirality on directing pollen transfer, pollinator behavior, and its potential influence on disassortative mating. We quantified pollen transfer and pollinator behavior and movement for both right and left rotated flowers in two populations of Hypericum perforatum. In addition, we quantified the number of right and left rotated flowers at the individual level. Pollinators were indifferent to corolla chirality resulting in no difference in pollen deposition between right and left flowers. Corolla chirality had no effect on pollinator and pollen movement between and within chiral morphs. Unlike other mirror image floral designs, corolla chirality appears to play no role in promoting disassortative mating in this species.

No MeSH data available.


Pollinator behavior observed on right and left flowers of Hypericum perforatum at the Mountain Lake Biological Station. Mean visitation rates of all pollinators combined on right and left flowers with each of the following behavior types: NR = no rotation, L = left rotation, R = right rotation, and R+L = right and left rotation (see Fig. 3). “A” and “B” are significantly different from each other according to Tukey's test (P < 0.001), indicating that pollinators preferred not to rotate (NR) while visiting a flower. There are no significant differences in pollinator behavior between right and left flowers (models that included chirality as an explanatory variable did not have a significantly lower AIC value). Error bars represent SE.
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ece32268-fig-0005: Pollinator behavior observed on right and left flowers of Hypericum perforatum at the Mountain Lake Biological Station. Mean visitation rates of all pollinators combined on right and left flowers with each of the following behavior types: NR = no rotation, L = left rotation, R = right rotation, and R+L = right and left rotation (see Fig. 3). “A” and “B” are significantly different from each other according to Tukey's test (P < 0.001), indicating that pollinators preferred not to rotate (NR) while visiting a flower. There are no significant differences in pollinator behavior between right and left flowers (models that included chirality as an explanatory variable did not have a significantly lower AIC value). Error bars represent SE.

Mentions: We found that pollinators do not adopt the four observed behaviors (rotate to the right “R”, to the left “L”, not rotate “NR”, or rotate to the left and right “R+L”; see Fig. 3) equally while visiting the flowers. The model with behavior type as a single fixed factor was the only one with a significantly lower AIC (likelihood ratio test; χ2 = 218.7, P < 0.001; see Table 2). The post hoc Tukey test indicates a significant difference between no rotation (NR) and the rest of the pollinator behavior types (P < 0.001, see Fig. 5), because of a significantly higher number of nonrotating (NR) visits to flowers. In addition, the post hoc Tukey's test shows no significant differences in pollinator behavior between right and left flowers (P = 0.53–1; see Fig. 5).


Corolla chirality does not contribute to directed pollen movement in H ypericum perforatum ( H ypericaceae): mirror image pinwheel flowers function as radially symmetric flowers in pollination
Pollinator behavior observed on right and left flowers of Hypericum perforatum at the Mountain Lake Biological Station. Mean visitation rates of all pollinators combined on right and left flowers with each of the following behavior types: NR = no rotation, L = left rotation, R = right rotation, and R+L = right and left rotation (see Fig. 3). “A” and “B” are significantly different from each other according to Tukey's test (P < 0.001), indicating that pollinators preferred not to rotate (NR) while visiting a flower. There are no significant differences in pollinator behavior between right and left flowers (models that included chirality as an explanatory variable did not have a significantly lower AIC value). Error bars represent SE.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4979728&req=5

ece32268-fig-0005: Pollinator behavior observed on right and left flowers of Hypericum perforatum at the Mountain Lake Biological Station. Mean visitation rates of all pollinators combined on right and left flowers with each of the following behavior types: NR = no rotation, L = left rotation, R = right rotation, and R+L = right and left rotation (see Fig. 3). “A” and “B” are significantly different from each other according to Tukey's test (P < 0.001), indicating that pollinators preferred not to rotate (NR) while visiting a flower. There are no significant differences in pollinator behavior between right and left flowers (models that included chirality as an explanatory variable did not have a significantly lower AIC value). Error bars represent SE.
Mentions: We found that pollinators do not adopt the four observed behaviors (rotate to the right “R”, to the left “L”, not rotate “NR”, or rotate to the left and right “R+L”; see Fig. 3) equally while visiting the flowers. The model with behavior type as a single fixed factor was the only one with a significantly lower AIC (likelihood ratio test; χ2 = 218.7, P < 0.001; see Table 2). The post hoc Tukey test indicates a significant difference between no rotation (NR) and the rest of the pollinator behavior types (P < 0.001, see Fig. 5), because of a significantly higher number of nonrotating (NR) visits to flowers. In addition, the post hoc Tukey's test shows no significant differences in pollinator behavior between right and left flowers (P = 0.53–1; see Fig. 5).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Corolla chirality, the pinwheel arrangement of petals within a flower, is found throughout the core eudicots. In 15 families, different chiral type flowers (i.e., right or left rotated corolla) exist on the same plant, and this condition is referred to as unfixed/enantiomorphic corolla chirality. There are no investigations on the significance of unfixed floral chirality on directed pollen movement even though analogous mirror image floral designs, for example, enantiostyly, has evolved in response to selection to direct pollinator and pollen movement. Here, we examine the role of corolla chirality on directing pollen transfer, pollinator behavior, and its potential influence on disassortative mating. We quantified pollen transfer and pollinator behavior and movement for both right and left rotated flowers in two populations of Hypericum perforatum. In addition, we quantified the number of right and left rotated flowers at the individual level. Pollinators were indifferent to corolla chirality resulting in no difference in pollen deposition between right and left flowers. Corolla chirality had no effect on pollinator and pollen movement between and within chiral morphs. Unlike other mirror image floral designs, corolla chirality appears to play no role in promoting disassortative mating in this species.

No MeSH data available.