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Corolla chirality does not contribute to directed pollen movement in H ypericum perforatum ( H ypericaceae): mirror image pinwheel flowers function as radially symmetric flowers in pollination

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ABSTRACT

Corolla chirality, the pinwheel arrangement of petals within a flower, is found throughout the core eudicots. In 15 families, different chiral type flowers (i.e., right or left rotated corolla) exist on the same plant, and this condition is referred to as unfixed/enantiomorphic corolla chirality. There are no investigations on the significance of unfixed floral chirality on directed pollen movement even though analogous mirror image floral designs, for example, enantiostyly, has evolved in response to selection to direct pollinator and pollen movement. Here, we examine the role of corolla chirality on directing pollen transfer, pollinator behavior, and its potential influence on disassortative mating. We quantified pollen transfer and pollinator behavior and movement for both right and left rotated flowers in two populations of Hypericum perforatum. In addition, we quantified the number of right and left rotated flowers at the individual level. Pollinators were indifferent to corolla chirality resulting in no difference in pollen deposition between right and left flowers. Corolla chirality had no effect on pollinator and pollen movement between and within chiral morphs. Unlike other mirror image floral designs, corolla chirality appears to play no role in promoting disassortative mating in this species.

No MeSH data available.


Hypericum perforatum flower with a syrphid fly (for scale) at the Mountain Lake Biological Station. This flower is an example of a right flower (see Fig. 2 for an explanation of terminology).
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ece32268-fig-0001: Hypericum perforatum flower with a syrphid fly (for scale) at the Mountain Lake Biological Station. This flower is an example of a right flower (see Fig. 2 for an explanation of terminology).

Mentions: Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) is a perennial shrub with flowers in a thyrse inflorescence, having five petals, three carpels, three stigmas, and numerous stamens (Fig. 1) (Crompton et al. 1988; Stevens 2007). In addition, every individual has two floral chiral types. These flowers can be easily distinguished by the shape and direction of their petals. Each petal is asymmetric with one straight side while the other is rounded and serrated. When an open flower is looked at from above, the right morphotype have the rounded side of every petal located on the right (Fig. 2F) and flowers of the left morphotype have it located to the left of every petal (Fig. 2E). Hypericum perforatum plants are typically 0.3–0.9 m tall (Crompton et al. 1988), and the mean number of open flowers per individual in our study site was 5.05 with a range of 1–15 flowers in population A (n = 22 individuals) and 8.53 with a range of 1–29 flowers per individual in population B (n = 35 individuals).


Corolla chirality does not contribute to directed pollen movement in H ypericum perforatum ( H ypericaceae): mirror image pinwheel flowers function as radially symmetric flowers in pollination
Hypericum perforatum flower with a syrphid fly (for scale) at the Mountain Lake Biological Station. This flower is an example of a right flower (see Fig. 2 for an explanation of terminology).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4979728&req=5

ece32268-fig-0001: Hypericum perforatum flower with a syrphid fly (for scale) at the Mountain Lake Biological Station. This flower is an example of a right flower (see Fig. 2 for an explanation of terminology).
Mentions: Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) is a perennial shrub with flowers in a thyrse inflorescence, having five petals, three carpels, three stigmas, and numerous stamens (Fig. 1) (Crompton et al. 1988; Stevens 2007). In addition, every individual has two floral chiral types. These flowers can be easily distinguished by the shape and direction of their petals. Each petal is asymmetric with one straight side while the other is rounded and serrated. When an open flower is looked at from above, the right morphotype have the rounded side of every petal located on the right (Fig. 2F) and flowers of the left morphotype have it located to the left of every petal (Fig. 2E). Hypericum perforatum plants are typically 0.3–0.9 m tall (Crompton et al. 1988), and the mean number of open flowers per individual in our study site was 5.05 with a range of 1–15 flowers in population A (n = 22 individuals) and 8.53 with a range of 1–29 flowers per individual in population B (n = 35 individuals).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Corolla chirality, the pinwheel arrangement of petals within a flower, is found throughout the core eudicots. In 15 families, different chiral type flowers (i.e., right or left rotated corolla) exist on the same plant, and this condition is referred to as unfixed/enantiomorphic corolla chirality. There are no investigations on the significance of unfixed floral chirality on directed pollen movement even though analogous mirror image floral designs, for example, enantiostyly, has evolved in response to selection to direct pollinator and pollen movement. Here, we examine the role of corolla chirality on directing pollen transfer, pollinator behavior, and its potential influence on disassortative mating. We quantified pollen transfer and pollinator behavior and movement for both right and left rotated flowers in two populations of Hypericum perforatum. In addition, we quantified the number of right and left rotated flowers at the individual level. Pollinators were indifferent to corolla chirality resulting in no difference in pollen deposition between right and left flowers. Corolla chirality had no effect on pollinator and pollen movement between and within chiral morphs. Unlike other mirror image floral designs, corolla chirality appears to play no role in promoting disassortative mating in this species.

No MeSH data available.