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Can you hear me now? Range ‐ testing a submerged passive acoustic receiver array in a Caribbean coral reef habitat

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Submerged passive acoustic technology allows researchers to investigate spatial and temporal movement patterns of many marine and freshwater species. The technology uses receivers to detect and record acoustic transmissions emitted from tags attached to an individual. Acoustic signal strength naturally attenuates over distance, but numerous environmental variables also affect the probability a tag is detected. Knowledge of receiver range is crucial for designing acoustic arrays and analyzing telemetry data. Here, we present a method for testing a relatively large‐scale receiver array in a dynamic Caribbean coastal environment intended for long‐term monitoring of multiple species. The U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions in collaboration with resource management at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM), off the coast of St. Croix, recently deployed a 52 passive acoustic receiver array. We targeted 19 array‐representative receivers for range‐testing by submersing fixed delay interval range‐testing tags at various distance intervals in each cardinal direction from a receiver for a minimum of an hour. Using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we estimated the probability of detection across the array and assessed the effect of water depth, habitat, wind, temperature, and time of day on the probability of detection. The predicted probability of detection across the entire array at 100 m distance from a receiver was 58.2% (95% CI: 44.0–73.0%) and dropped to 26.0% (95% CI: 11.4–39.3%) 200 m from a receiver indicating a somewhat constrained effective detection range. Detection probability varied across habitat classes with the greatest effective detection range occurring in homogenous sand substrate and the smallest in high rugosity reef. Predicted probability of detection across BIRNM highlights potential gaps in coverage using the current array as well as limitations of passive acoustic technology within a complex coral reef environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM). (A). Map showing the location of BIRNM within the Caribbean region. (B). The 73.4 km2BIRNM with the boundary outlined in red.
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ece32228-fig-0001: Location of Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM). (A). Map showing the location of BIRNM within the Caribbean region. (B). The 73.4 km2BIRNM with the boundary outlined in red.

Mentions: Located 2.4 km northeast of the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, BIRNM encompasses 73.4 km2 of almost entirely submerged lands in addition to the 0.7 km2 uninhabited Buck Island (Hart et al. 2013; Fig. 1A and B). An emergent reef bank surrounds Buck Island creating a shallow 50‐150 m wide lagoon starting on the southern side and continuing counterclockwise to the northwest corner where it ends and becomes a series of isolated patch reefs. South/southwest of Buck Island, the reef bank slopes steeply to 12–15 m depths of mostly homogenous sand/sea grass beds sparsely interspersed with low lying reef‐rubble patches. Roughly 1 km north of Buck Island lies a submerged reef bank called the Buck Island Bar that runs east–west along the length of the coastal shelf (Bythell et al. 1993). In between Buck Island and the Buck Island Bar are densely clustered remnant stands of dead elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) that rise to the surface from a depth of 9–15 m called “haystacks” (Mayor et al. 2006). West of the island, shallow sea grass beds (2–9 m) interspersed with aggregate reef patches gradually drop off into >15 m depths of fairly homogenous hard bottom substrate. The receiver locations are centralized around Buck Island and dispersed within the various habitats. There are, however, fewer receiver stations north of Buck Island due to the difficulty of navigating by boat within that area and the predicted limited effective detection range of receivers given the high density of complex coral structure. Habitat and depth at each receiver station are shown in Figures 2 and 3.


Can you hear me now? Range ‐ testing a submerged passive acoustic receiver array in a Caribbean coral reef habitat
Location of Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM). (A). Map showing the location of BIRNM within the Caribbean region. (B). The 73.4 km2BIRNM with the boundary outlined in red.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4979710&req=5

ece32228-fig-0001: Location of Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM). (A). Map showing the location of BIRNM within the Caribbean region. (B). The 73.4 km2BIRNM with the boundary outlined in red.
Mentions: Located 2.4 km northeast of the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, BIRNM encompasses 73.4 km2 of almost entirely submerged lands in addition to the 0.7 km2 uninhabited Buck Island (Hart et al. 2013; Fig. 1A and B). An emergent reef bank surrounds Buck Island creating a shallow 50‐150 m wide lagoon starting on the southern side and continuing counterclockwise to the northwest corner where it ends and becomes a series of isolated patch reefs. South/southwest of Buck Island, the reef bank slopes steeply to 12–15 m depths of mostly homogenous sand/sea grass beds sparsely interspersed with low lying reef‐rubble patches. Roughly 1 km north of Buck Island lies a submerged reef bank called the Buck Island Bar that runs east–west along the length of the coastal shelf (Bythell et al. 1993). In between Buck Island and the Buck Island Bar are densely clustered remnant stands of dead elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) that rise to the surface from a depth of 9–15 m called “haystacks” (Mayor et al. 2006). West of the island, shallow sea grass beds (2–9 m) interspersed with aggregate reef patches gradually drop off into >15 m depths of fairly homogenous hard bottom substrate. The receiver locations are centralized around Buck Island and dispersed within the various habitats. There are, however, fewer receiver stations north of Buck Island due to the difficulty of navigating by boat within that area and the predicted limited effective detection range of receivers given the high density of complex coral structure. Habitat and depth at each receiver station are shown in Figures 2 and 3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Submerged passive acoustic technology allows researchers to investigate spatial and temporal movement patterns of many marine and freshwater species. The technology uses receivers to detect and record acoustic transmissions emitted from tags attached to an individual. Acoustic signal strength naturally attenuates over distance, but numerous environmental variables also affect the probability a tag is detected. Knowledge of receiver range is crucial for designing acoustic arrays and analyzing telemetry data. Here, we present a method for testing a relatively large‐scale receiver array in a dynamic Caribbean coastal environment intended for long‐term monitoring of multiple species. The U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions in collaboration with resource management at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM), off the coast of St. Croix, recently deployed a 52 passive acoustic receiver array. We targeted 19 array‐representative receivers for range‐testing by submersing fixed delay interval range‐testing tags at various distance intervals in each cardinal direction from a receiver for a minimum of an hour. Using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we estimated the probability of detection across the array and assessed the effect of water depth, habitat, wind, temperature, and time of day on the probability of detection. The predicted probability of detection across the entire array at 100 m distance from a receiver was 58.2% (95% CI: 44.0–73.0%) and dropped to 26.0% (95% CI: 11.4–39.3%) 200 m from a receiver indicating a somewhat constrained effective detection range. Detection probability varied across habitat classes with the greatest effective detection range occurring in homogenous sand substrate and the smallest in high rugosity reef. Predicted probability of detection across BIRNM highlights potential gaps in coverage using the current array as well as limitations of passive acoustic technology within a complex coral reef environment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus