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Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf ‐ footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

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ABSTRACT

Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north‐central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full‐sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high‐quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high‐ or low‐quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low‐quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

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Mean and ± SE A) testes mass (mg), B) sperm concentration (sperm/μL), and C) sperm viability (%) of inbred or outbred males with access good nutrition (fruit) and who were restricted to poor nutrition (no fruit). Males were either inbred and had access to fruit (I/F), inbred and had no access to fruit (I/NF), outbred and had access to fruit (O/F), or outbred and had no access to fruit (O/NF). Analyses were performed between the four treatments using the average values from 15 groups.
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ece32246-fig-0002: Mean and ± SE A) testes mass (mg), B) sperm concentration (sperm/μL), and C) sperm viability (%) of inbred or outbred males with access good nutrition (fruit) and who were restricted to poor nutrition (no fruit). Males were either inbred and had access to fruit (I/F), inbred and had no access to fruit (I/NF), outbred and had access to fruit (O/F), or outbred and had no access to fruit (O/NF). Analyses were performed between the four treatments using the average values from 15 groups.

Mentions: We found that poor nutrition had a large and negative effect on testes mass (Fig. 2A; Table 1), but inbreeding did not have a detectable effect. We did not find evidence that either inbreeding or poor nutrition affected sperm concentration (Fig. 2B; Table 1) or sperm viability (Fig. 2C; Table 1). We did not find an interaction between inbreeding and poor nutrition on any primary sexual trait (Table 1).


Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf ‐ footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae)
Mean and ± SE A) testes mass (mg), B) sperm concentration (sperm/μL), and C) sperm viability (%) of inbred or outbred males with access good nutrition (fruit) and who were restricted to poor nutrition (no fruit). Males were either inbred and had access to fruit (I/F), inbred and had no access to fruit (I/NF), outbred and had access to fruit (O/F), or outbred and had no access to fruit (O/NF). Analyses were performed between the four treatments using the average values from 15 groups.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4979707&req=5

ece32246-fig-0002: Mean and ± SE A) testes mass (mg), B) sperm concentration (sperm/μL), and C) sperm viability (%) of inbred or outbred males with access good nutrition (fruit) and who were restricted to poor nutrition (no fruit). Males were either inbred and had access to fruit (I/F), inbred and had no access to fruit (I/NF), outbred and had access to fruit (O/F), or outbred and had no access to fruit (O/NF). Analyses were performed between the four treatments using the average values from 15 groups.
Mentions: We found that poor nutrition had a large and negative effect on testes mass (Fig. 2A; Table 1), but inbreeding did not have a detectable effect. We did not find evidence that either inbreeding or poor nutrition affected sperm concentration (Fig. 2B; Table 1) or sperm viability (Fig. 2C; Table 1). We did not find an interaction between inbreeding and poor nutrition on any primary sexual trait (Table 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north‐central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full‐sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high‐quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high‐ or low‐quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low‐quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus