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Multiwalled carbon nanotube hybrids as MRI contrast agents

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ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most commonly used tomography techniques in medical diagnosis due to the non-invasive character, the high spatial resolution and the possibility of soft tissue imaging. Contrast agents, such as gadolinium complexes and superparamagnetic iron oxides, are administered to spotlight certain organs and their pathologies. Many new models have been proposed that reduce side effects and required doses of these already clinically approved contrast agents. These new candidates often possess additional functionalities, e.g., the possibility of bioactivation upon action of particular stimuli, thus serving as smart molecular probes, or the coupling with therapeutic agents and therefore combining both a diagnostic and therapeutic role. Nanomaterials have been found to be an excellent scaffold for contrast agents, among which carbon nanotubes offer vast possibilities. The morphology of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), their magnetic and electronic properties, the possibility of different functionalization and the potential to penetrate cell membranes result in a unique and very attractive candidate for a new MRI contrast agent. In this review we describe the different issues connected with MWCNT hybrids designed for MRI contrast agents, i.e., their synthesis and magnetic and dispersion properties, as well as both in vitro and in vivo behavior, which is important for diagnostic purposes. An introduction to MRI contrast agent theory is elaborated here in order to point to the specific expectations regarding nanomaterials. Finally, we propose a promising, general model of MWCNTs as MRI contrast agent candidates based on the studies presented here and supported by appropriate theories.

No MeSH data available.


Organic ligands in MWCNT hybrids.
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Figure 2: Organic ligands in MWCNT hybrids.

Mentions: MWCNTs were synthesized by chemical catalytic vapor deposition (c-CVD) [20]. This is the most common method of MWCNT synthesis. The inherent consequence of the application of a metal catalyst (e.g., ferrocene, aluminum oxide) is the presence of a nanometallic deposit in the tubes [21]. Thus obtained MWCNTs are already an interesting scaffold for both (non-)covalent modifications leading to CA candidates (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3).


Multiwalled carbon nanotube hybrids as MRI contrast agents
Organic ligands in MWCNT hybrids.
© Copyright Policy - Beilstein
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4979685&req=5

Figure 2: Organic ligands in MWCNT hybrids.
Mentions: MWCNTs were synthesized by chemical catalytic vapor deposition (c-CVD) [20]. This is the most common method of MWCNT synthesis. The inherent consequence of the application of a metal catalyst (e.g., ferrocene, aluminum oxide) is the presence of a nanometallic deposit in the tubes [21]. Thus obtained MWCNTs are already an interesting scaffold for both (non-)covalent modifications leading to CA candidates (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most commonly used tomography techniques in medical diagnosis due to the non-invasive character, the high spatial resolution and the possibility of soft tissue imaging. Contrast agents, such as gadolinium complexes and superparamagnetic iron oxides, are administered to spotlight certain organs and their pathologies. Many new models have been proposed that reduce side effects and required doses of these already clinically approved contrast agents. These new candidates often possess additional functionalities, e.g., the possibility of bioactivation upon action of particular stimuli, thus serving as smart molecular probes, or the coupling with therapeutic agents and therefore combining both a diagnostic and therapeutic role. Nanomaterials have been found to be an excellent scaffold for contrast agents, among which carbon nanotubes offer vast possibilities. The morphology of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), their magnetic and electronic properties, the possibility of different functionalization and the potential to penetrate cell membranes result in a unique and very attractive candidate for a new MRI contrast agent. In this review we describe the different issues connected with MWCNT hybrids designed for MRI contrast agents, i.e., their synthesis and magnetic and dispersion properties, as well as both in vitro and in vivo behavior, which is important for diagnostic purposes. An introduction to MRI contrast agent theory is elaborated here in order to point to the specific expectations regarding nanomaterials. Finally, we propose a promising, general model of MWCNTs as MRI contrast agent candidates based on the studies presented here and supported by appropriate theories.

No MeSH data available.