Limits...
The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

No MeSH data available.


Blood flow changes in the venation of a hind wing of C. japonicus at the entrance (A); pressure change as a function of the time at rotation points q1 (B) and q2 (C).
© Copyright Policy - Beilstein
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4979654&req=5

Figure 8: Blood flow changes in the venation of a hind wing of C. japonicus at the entrance (A); pressure change as a function of the time at rotation points q1 (B) and q2 (C).

Mentions: The flow changes in the vasculature were also simulated (Fig. 8). Fig. 8 shows the change of flow as a function of the time (minus denotes outflow) in the wing base of the C vein (entrance point). Because the density is constant, the flow change directly responds to the variation in the flow velocity. At the beginning (0.1 s), because the entrance pressure is high, the hind wing venation just begins to unfold, with a great deal of blood flow from the wing base to the veins. With the movement gradually accelerated and the extending angle gradually increased, the veins produce a negative effect on the blood in the extending process of the wing, leading to outflow from the entrance. There is a slight fluctuation until the veins are fully expanded, and the entrance flow tends to 0; Fig. 8 and Fig. 8 show the pressure change with time at q1 and q2, similar to Fig. 5 (the actual test curve).


The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)
Blood flow changes in the venation of a hind wing of C. japonicus at the entrance (A); pressure change as a function of the time at rotation points q1 (B) and q2 (C).
© Copyright Policy - Beilstein
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4979654&req=5

Figure 8: Blood flow changes in the venation of a hind wing of C. japonicus at the entrance (A); pressure change as a function of the time at rotation points q1 (B) and q2 (C).
Mentions: The flow changes in the vasculature were also simulated (Fig. 8). Fig. 8 shows the change of flow as a function of the time (minus denotes outflow) in the wing base of the C vein (entrance point). Because the density is constant, the flow change directly responds to the variation in the flow velocity. At the beginning (0.1 s), because the entrance pressure is high, the hind wing venation just begins to unfold, with a great deal of blood flow from the wing base to the veins. With the movement gradually accelerated and the extending angle gradually increased, the veins produce a negative effect on the blood in the extending process of the wing, leading to outflow from the entrance. There is a slight fluctuation until the veins are fully expanded, and the entrance flow tends to 0; Fig. 8 and Fig. 8 show the pressure change with time at q1 and q2, similar to Fig. 5 (the actual test curve).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

No MeSH data available.