Limits...
The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) and (B) C. japonicus, excised hind wings in folded state (C) and unfolded state (D), where C is costa, ScA is subcosta anterior, RA is radius anterior, R is radius, MP is media posterior, CuA is cubitus anterior, AAP is anal anterior posterior, and AP4 is anal posterior. (E–G) The local mesh figure and the vein movement diagram. The costa vein was set as three segments: S1 is fixed, S2 is connected to S1 and can rotate, and S3 is connected to S2 and can rotate. S1 simulates C+ScA, while S2 and S3 simulate RA, which is the folded vein. q1 and q2 are rotating points. C-S1 to C-S3 are the cutting positions of the cross sections of the wing base, the posterior part of the wing, and the folded zone in C for Fig. 3.
© Copyright Policy - Beilstein
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4979654&req=5

Figure 1: (A) and (B) C. japonicus, excised hind wings in folded state (C) and unfolded state (D), where C is costa, ScA is subcosta anterior, RA is radius anterior, R is radius, MP is media posterior, CuA is cubitus anterior, AAP is anal anterior posterior, and AP4 is anal posterior. (E–G) The local mesh figure and the vein movement diagram. The costa vein was set as three segments: S1 is fixed, S2 is connected to S1 and can rotate, and S3 is connected to S2 and can rotate. S1 simulates C+ScA, while S2 and S3 simulate RA, which is the folded vein. q1 and q2 are rotating points. C-S1 to C-S3 are the cutting positions of the cross sections of the wing base, the posterior part of the wing, and the folded zone in C for Fig. 3.

Mentions: The diving beetle (C. japonicus) is an aggressive predator: larvae and imagines devour small fish and invertebrates (Fig. 1 and Fig. 1). They live in fresh water and can swim actively. They have a pronounced flight capability when leaving the water, and they fly to migrate from one body of water to another. Wings are folded and the elytra are closed during the imaginal life activities of the beetle (swimming, hunting, reproduction), not only during rest. Their hind wings are folded under the elytra when at rest. Fig. 1 shows an excised hind wing in the folded state, in which it is 30% shorter than in the deployed state (Fig. 1). The venation is shown in Fig. 1, where C is costa, ScA is subcosta anterio, RA is radius anterior, R is radius, MP is media posterior, CuA is cubitus anterior, AAP is anal anterior posterior, and AP4 is anal posterior. Fig. 1–G shows the simulation model of a folded vein of C. japonicus. For observation and experimentation, beetles were captured in the wild in Guangdong City, Guangdong Province, China. Their body length was 35–40 mm.


The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)
(A) and (B) C. japonicus, excised hind wings in folded state (C) and unfolded state (D), where C is costa, ScA is subcosta anterior, RA is radius anterior, R is radius, MP is media posterior, CuA is cubitus anterior, AAP is anal anterior posterior, and AP4 is anal posterior. (E–G) The local mesh figure and the vein movement diagram. The costa vein was set as three segments: S1 is fixed, S2 is connected to S1 and can rotate, and S3 is connected to S2 and can rotate. S1 simulates C+ScA, while S2 and S3 simulate RA, which is the folded vein. q1 and q2 are rotating points. C-S1 to C-S3 are the cutting positions of the cross sections of the wing base, the posterior part of the wing, and the folded zone in C for Fig. 3.
© Copyright Policy - Beilstein
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4979654&req=5

Figure 1: (A) and (B) C. japonicus, excised hind wings in folded state (C) and unfolded state (D), where C is costa, ScA is subcosta anterior, RA is radius anterior, R is radius, MP is media posterior, CuA is cubitus anterior, AAP is anal anterior posterior, and AP4 is anal posterior. (E–G) The local mesh figure and the vein movement diagram. The costa vein was set as three segments: S1 is fixed, S2 is connected to S1 and can rotate, and S3 is connected to S2 and can rotate. S1 simulates C+ScA, while S2 and S3 simulate RA, which is the folded vein. q1 and q2 are rotating points. C-S1 to C-S3 are the cutting positions of the cross sections of the wing base, the posterior part of the wing, and the folded zone in C for Fig. 3.
Mentions: The diving beetle (C. japonicus) is an aggressive predator: larvae and imagines devour small fish and invertebrates (Fig. 1 and Fig. 1). They live in fresh water and can swim actively. They have a pronounced flight capability when leaving the water, and they fly to migrate from one body of water to another. Wings are folded and the elytra are closed during the imaginal life activities of the beetle (swimming, hunting, reproduction), not only during rest. Their hind wings are folded under the elytra when at rest. Fig. 1 shows an excised hind wing in the folded state, in which it is 30% shorter than in the deployed state (Fig. 1). The venation is shown in Fig. 1, where C is costa, ScA is subcosta anterio, RA is radius anterior, R is radius, MP is media posterior, CuA is cubitus anterior, AAP is anal anterior posterior, and AP4 is anal posterior. Fig. 1–G shows the simulation model of a folded vein of C. japonicus. For observation and experimentation, beetles were captured in the wild in Guangdong City, Guangdong Province, China. Their body length was 35–40 mm.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus