Limits...
Juvenile Atlantic cod behavior appears robust to near-future CO2 levels.

Jutfelt F, Hedgärde M - Front. Zool. (2015)

Bottom Line: These effects appear to alter many different types of sensory and cognitive functions; if widespread and persistent, they have the potential to cause ecosystem changes.We found no effect of CO2 treatment on any of the four behaviors tested: activity (F = 1.61, p = 0.33), emergence from shelter (F = 0.13, p = 0.76), relative lateralization (F = 2.82, p = 0.50), and absolute lateralization (F = 0.80, p = 0.26).Our results indicate that the behavior of Atlantic cod could be resilient to the impacts of near-future levels of water CO2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 463, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden ; The Lovén Centre Kristineberg, Kristineberg 566, SE-451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ocean acidification caused by the anthropogenic release of CO2 is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems. One unexpected impact of elevated water CO2 levels is that behavioral alterations may occur in tropical reef fish and certain temperate fish species. These effects appear to alter many different types of sensory and cognitive functions; if widespread and persistent, they have the potential to cause ecosystem changes.

Methods: We investigated whether economically and ecologically important Atlantic cod also display behavioral abnormalities by exposing 52 juvenile cod to control conditions (500 őľatm, duplicate tanks) or an end-of-the-century ocean acidification scenario (1000 őľatm, duplicate tanks) for one month, during which time the fish were examined for a range of behaviors that have been reported to be affected by elevated CO2 in other fish. The behaviors were swimming activity, as measured by number of lines crossed per minute, the emergence from shelter, determined by how long it took the fish to exit a shelter after a disturbance, relative lateralization (a measure of behavioral turning side preference), and absolute lateralization (the strength of behavioral symmetry).

Results: We found no effect of CO2 treatment on any of the four behaviors tested: activity (F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.61, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.33), emergence from shelter (F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.13, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.76), relative lateralization (F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.82, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.50), and absolute lateralization (F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.80, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.26).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that the behavior of Atlantic cod could be resilient to the impacts of near-future levels of water CO2.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative and absolute lateralization in Atlantic cod exposed to control or high CO2 water. A. Relative lateralization (frequency in %) of Atlantic cod after 30¬†days of exposure to either control pCO2 conditions (blue) or high-pCO2 conditions (orange) (ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21 and nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17), where ‚ąí100 represents 100% left turns and 100 represents 100% right turns. The vertical axis shows the frequency (%). B. Mean absolute lateralization; ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21 and nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17). The data represent the mean‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČSEM.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940919&req=5

Fig3: Relative and absolute lateralization in Atlantic cod exposed to control or high CO2 water. A. Relative lateralization (frequency in %) of Atlantic cod after 30¬†days of exposure to either control pCO2 conditions (blue) or high-pCO2 conditions (orange) (ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21 and nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17), where ‚ąí100 represents 100% left turns and 100 represents 100% right turns. The vertical axis shows the frequency (%). B. Mean absolute lateralization; ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21 and nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17). The data represent the mean‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČSEM.

Mentions: There was a tendency for the CO2 fish to be right-biased and the control fish to be left-biased, but there was no significant difference in relative lateralization (Lr) (nested ANOVA; F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.82, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.502, ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21, nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17) (Figure¬†3A). However, there was a significant effect between tanks (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.012). There was no significant difference in the absolute lateralization (La) (nested ANOVA; F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.80, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.255, ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21, nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17) (Figure¬†3B).Figure 3


Juvenile Atlantic cod behavior appears robust to near-future CO2 levels.

Jutfelt F, Hedgärde M - Front. Zool. (2015)

Relative and absolute lateralization in Atlantic cod exposed to control or high CO2 water. A. Relative lateralization (frequency in %) of Atlantic cod after 30¬†days of exposure to either control pCO2 conditions (blue) or high-pCO2 conditions (orange) (ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21 and nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17), where ‚ąí100 represents 100% left turns and 100 represents 100% right turns. The vertical axis shows the frequency (%). B. Mean absolute lateralization; ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21 and nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17). The data represent the mean‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČSEM.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940919&req=5

Fig3: Relative and absolute lateralization in Atlantic cod exposed to control or high CO2 water. A. Relative lateralization (frequency in %) of Atlantic cod after 30¬†days of exposure to either control pCO2 conditions (blue) or high-pCO2 conditions (orange) (ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21 and nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17), where ‚ąí100 represents 100% left turns and 100 represents 100% right turns. The vertical axis shows the frequency (%). B. Mean absolute lateralization; ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21 and nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17). The data represent the mean‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČSEM.
Mentions: There was a tendency for the CO2 fish to be right-biased and the control fish to be left-biased, but there was no significant difference in relative lateralization (Lr) (nested ANOVA; F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.82, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.502, ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21, nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17) (Figure¬†3A). However, there was a significant effect between tanks (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.012). There was no significant difference in the absolute lateralization (La) (nested ANOVA; F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.80, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.255, ncontrol‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ21, nCO2‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ17) (Figure¬†3B).Figure 3

Bottom Line: These effects appear to alter many different types of sensory and cognitive functions; if widespread and persistent, they have the potential to cause ecosystem changes.We found no effect of CO2 treatment on any of the four behaviors tested: activity (F = 1.61, p = 0.33), emergence from shelter (F = 0.13, p = 0.76), relative lateralization (F = 2.82, p = 0.50), and absolute lateralization (F = 0.80, p = 0.26).Our results indicate that the behavior of Atlantic cod could be resilient to the impacts of near-future levels of water CO2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 463, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden ; The Lovén Centre Kristineberg, Kristineberg 566, SE-451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ocean acidification caused by the anthropogenic release of CO2 is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems. One unexpected impact of elevated water CO2 levels is that behavioral alterations may occur in tropical reef fish and certain temperate fish species. These effects appear to alter many different types of sensory and cognitive functions; if widespread and persistent, they have the potential to cause ecosystem changes.

Methods: We investigated whether economically and ecologically important Atlantic cod also display behavioral abnormalities by exposing 52 juvenile cod to control conditions (500 őľatm, duplicate tanks) or an end-of-the-century ocean acidification scenario (1000 őľatm, duplicate tanks) for one month, during which time the fish were examined for a range of behaviors that have been reported to be affected by elevated CO2 in other fish. The behaviors were swimming activity, as measured by number of lines crossed per minute, the emergence from shelter, determined by how long it took the fish to exit a shelter after a disturbance, relative lateralization (a measure of behavioral turning side preference), and absolute lateralization (the strength of behavioral symmetry).

Results: We found no effect of CO2 treatment on any of the four behaviors tested: activity (F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.61, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.33), emergence from shelter (F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.13, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.76), relative lateralization (F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.82, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.50), and absolute lateralization (F‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.80, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.26).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that the behavior of Atlantic cod could be resilient to the impacts of near-future levels of water CO2.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus