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Obesity: systemic and pulmonary complications, biochemical abnormalities, and impairment of lung function.

Mafort TT, Rufino R, Costa CH, Lopes AJ - Multidiscip Respir Med (2016)

Bottom Line: Because of the ineffectiveness of the respiratory muscles, strength and resistance may be reduced.It is noteworthy that patterns of body fat distribution significantly influence the function of the respiratory system, likely via the direct mechanical effect of fat accumulation in the chest and abdominal regions.Weight loss caused by various types of treatment, including low-calorie diet, intragastric balloon, and bariatric surgery, significantly improves lung function and metabolic syndrome and reduces body mass index.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Respiration Physiology, Pulmonary Medicine Department, Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Boulevard 28 de Setembro, 77, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Obesity is currently one of the major epidemics of this millennium and affects individuals throughout the world. It causes multiple systemic complications, some of which result in severe impairment of organs and tissues. These complications involve mechanical changes caused by the accumulation of adipose tissue and the numerous cytokines produced by adipocytes. Obesity also significantly interferes with respiratory function by decreasing lung volume, particularly the expiratory reserve volume and functional residual capacity. Because of the ineffectiveness of the respiratory muscles, strength and resistance may be reduced. All these factors lead to inspiratory overload, which increases respiratory effort, oxygen consumption, and respiratory energy expenditure. It is noteworthy that patterns of body fat distribution significantly influence the function of the respiratory system, likely via the direct mechanical effect of fat accumulation in the chest and abdominal regions. Weight loss caused by various types of treatment, including low-calorie diet, intragastric balloon, and bariatric surgery, significantly improves lung function and metabolic syndrome and reduces body mass index. Despite advances in the knowledge of pulmonary and systemic complications associated with obesity, longitudinal randomized studies are needed to assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic syndrome and lung function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pulmonary function abnormalities resulting from obesity
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Fig1: Pulmonary function abnormalities resulting from obesity

Mentions: Obesity affects the respiratory system by several mechanisms, including direct mechanical changes due to fat deposition on the chest wall, abdomen, and upper airway as well as systemic inflammation [45]. It increases the work of breathing and, therefore, increases neural respiratory drive, in addition to causing respiratory sleep disorders and eventually hypercapnic respiratory failure [46]. In this context, tests of pulmonary function may be useful in evaluating whether a physiological change can be explained by the well-known effects of obesity on the respiratory system. Moreover, the detection of changes in the respiratory system resulting from obesity may be important because several of these changes can be reversed by weight loss or by surgical treatment of obesity (Fig. 1).Fig. 1


Obesity: systemic and pulmonary complications, biochemical abnormalities, and impairment of lung function.

Mafort TT, Rufino R, Costa CH, Lopes AJ - Multidiscip Respir Med (2016)

Pulmonary function abnormalities resulting from obesity
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940831&req=5

Fig1: Pulmonary function abnormalities resulting from obesity
Mentions: Obesity affects the respiratory system by several mechanisms, including direct mechanical changes due to fat deposition on the chest wall, abdomen, and upper airway as well as systemic inflammation [45]. It increases the work of breathing and, therefore, increases neural respiratory drive, in addition to causing respiratory sleep disorders and eventually hypercapnic respiratory failure [46]. In this context, tests of pulmonary function may be useful in evaluating whether a physiological change can be explained by the well-known effects of obesity on the respiratory system. Moreover, the detection of changes in the respiratory system resulting from obesity may be important because several of these changes can be reversed by weight loss or by surgical treatment of obesity (Fig. 1).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Because of the ineffectiveness of the respiratory muscles, strength and resistance may be reduced.It is noteworthy that patterns of body fat distribution significantly influence the function of the respiratory system, likely via the direct mechanical effect of fat accumulation in the chest and abdominal regions.Weight loss caused by various types of treatment, including low-calorie diet, intragastric balloon, and bariatric surgery, significantly improves lung function and metabolic syndrome and reduces body mass index.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Respiration Physiology, Pulmonary Medicine Department, Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Boulevard 28 de Setembro, 77, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Obesity is currently one of the major epidemics of this millennium and affects individuals throughout the world. It causes multiple systemic complications, some of which result in severe impairment of organs and tissues. These complications involve mechanical changes caused by the accumulation of adipose tissue and the numerous cytokines produced by adipocytes. Obesity also significantly interferes with respiratory function by decreasing lung volume, particularly the expiratory reserve volume and functional residual capacity. Because of the ineffectiveness of the respiratory muscles, strength and resistance may be reduced. All these factors lead to inspiratory overload, which increases respiratory effort, oxygen consumption, and respiratory energy expenditure. It is noteworthy that patterns of body fat distribution significantly influence the function of the respiratory system, likely via the direct mechanical effect of fat accumulation in the chest and abdominal regions. Weight loss caused by various types of treatment, including low-calorie diet, intragastric balloon, and bariatric surgery, significantly improves lung function and metabolic syndrome and reduces body mass index. Despite advances in the knowledge of pulmonary and systemic complications associated with obesity, longitudinal randomized studies are needed to assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic syndrome and lung function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus