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Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.

D'Ruiz CD, Graff DW, Robinson E - BMC Public Health (2016)

Bottom Line: All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %).By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation.No serious adverse events were observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Study Consultant, Greensboro, NC, 27455-3407, USA. Carldruiz@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes.

Methods: Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE) representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products.

Results: Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %-95 %) of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %-40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %-38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %-20 %) in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %-96 %) and e-cigarette use groups (11 %-83 %); dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %). Exhaled NO increases (46 %-63 %) were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed.

Conclusions: Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Exhaled Breath Biomarkers - Day 5 % Change from Day −1
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Fig3: Exhaled Breath Biomarkers - Day 5 % Change from Day −1

Mentions: Benefits associated with smoking reduction were noted in the exhaled CO and NO endpoints. All groups experienced statistically significant decreases in exhaled CO at Day 5 compared to Day −1, with decreases in the cessation and exclusive use groups ranging from ~88 % to ~89 % and in the dual use groups by ~26 % to ~32 % (Table 9 and Fig. 3). Further, there were no differences between the cessation and exclusive use group’s measurements on Day 5 whereas the dual use groups had significantly higher exhaled CO compared to cessation.Table 9


Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.

D'Ruiz CD, Graff DW, Robinson E - BMC Public Health (2016)

Exhaled Breath Biomarkers - Day 5 % Change from Day −1
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940751&req=5

Fig3: Exhaled Breath Biomarkers - Day 5 % Change from Day −1
Mentions: Benefits associated with smoking reduction were noted in the exhaled CO and NO endpoints. All groups experienced statistically significant decreases in exhaled CO at Day 5 compared to Day −1, with decreases in the cessation and exclusive use groups ranging from ~88 % to ~89 % and in the dual use groups by ~26 % to ~32 % (Table 9 and Fig. 3). Further, there were no differences between the cessation and exclusive use group’s measurements on Day 5 whereas the dual use groups had significantly higher exhaled CO compared to cessation.Table 9

Bottom Line: All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %).By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation.No serious adverse events were observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Study Consultant, Greensboro, NC, 27455-3407, USA. Carldruiz@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes.

Methods: Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE) representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products.

Results: Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %-95 %) of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %-40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %-38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %-20 %) in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %-96 %) and e-cigarette use groups (11 %-83 %); dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %). Exhaled NO increases (46 %-63 %) were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed.

Conclusions: Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus