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Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.

D'Ruiz CD, Graff DW, Robinson E - BMC Public Health (2016)

Bottom Line: All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %).By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation.No serious adverse events were observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Study Consultant, Greensboro, NC, 27455-3407, USA. Carldruiz@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes.

Methods: Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE) representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products.

Results: Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %-95 %) of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %-40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %-38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %-20 %) in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %-96 %) and e-cigarette use groups (11 %-83 %); dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %). Exhaled NO increases (46 %-63 %) were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed.

Conclusions: Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Urine biomarkers - Day 5 % change from Day −1
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Fig1: Urine biomarkers - Day 5 % change from Day −1

Mentions: Reducing cigarette use for 5 days according to the requirements of the study tended to result in sizeable reductions in exposure to a number of known harmful biomarkers of tobacco exposure (Tables 5 and 6, Figs. 1 and 2). Smoking cessation lead to a 66 %–98 % reduction in excretion of the urine biomarkers of exposure evaluated in this study. The smallest reduction was seen in NNAL, which has the longest half-life of the individual biomarkers listed (approximately 45 days) [24]. Predictably, significant decreases were also observed in the COHb, nicotine, and the nicotine metabolites as the cessation subjects had no exposure to CO or nicotine.Table 5


Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.

D'Ruiz CD, Graff DW, Robinson E - BMC Public Health (2016)

Urine biomarkers - Day 5 % change from Day −1
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940751&req=5

Fig1: Urine biomarkers - Day 5 % change from Day −1
Mentions: Reducing cigarette use for 5 days according to the requirements of the study tended to result in sizeable reductions in exposure to a number of known harmful biomarkers of tobacco exposure (Tables 5 and 6, Figs. 1 and 2). Smoking cessation lead to a 66 %–98 % reduction in excretion of the urine biomarkers of exposure evaluated in this study. The smallest reduction was seen in NNAL, which has the longest half-life of the individual biomarkers listed (approximately 45 days) [24]. Predictably, significant decreases were also observed in the COHb, nicotine, and the nicotine metabolites as the cessation subjects had no exposure to CO or nicotine.Table 5

Bottom Line: All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %).By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation.No serious adverse events were observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Study Consultant, Greensboro, NC, 27455-3407, USA. Carldruiz@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes.

Methods: Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE) representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products.

Results: Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %-95 %) of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %-40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %-38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %-20 %) in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %-96 %) and e-cigarette use groups (11 %-83 %); dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %). Exhaled NO increases (46 %-63 %) were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed.

Conclusions: Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus