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Immunomodulatory and anticancer potential of Gan cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) polysaccharides by CT-26 colon carcinoma cell growth inhibition and cytokine IL-7 upregulation in vitro.

Ayeka PA, Bian Y, Mwitari PG, Chu X, Zhang Y, Uzayisenga R, Otachi EO - BMC Complement Altern Med (2016)

Bottom Line: The ED50 was found to be 100 μg/ml.The effect of the polysaccharides were found to be molecular weight depended, with low molecular weight having a profound effect compared to high molecular weight and total crude extract.Therefore, immunomodulation is a possible mode of action of the polysaccharides in cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 312 Anshan Western Road, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300193, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chinese licorice, (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) is one of the commonly prescribed herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Gancao, as commonly known in China, is associated with immune-modulating and anti-tumor potential though the mechanism of action is not well known. In this study, we investigated the in vitro immunomodulatory and antitumor potential of Glycyrrhiza uralensis polysaccharides fractions of high molecular weight (fraction A), low molecular weight (fraction B) and crude extract (fraction C).

Methods: Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity was investigated using Cell Counting kit 8 (CCK-8) on Intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) and Colon carcinoma cell line (CT-26). IL-7 gene expression relative to GAPDH was analysed using Real time PCR. The stimulation and viability of T lymphocytes was determined by Trypan blue exclusion assay.

Results: G.uralensis polysaccharides did not inhibit proliferation of IEC-6 cells even at high concentration. The ED50 was found to be 100 μg/ml. On the other hand, the polysaccharides inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells (CT-26) at a concentration of ≤50 μg/ml. Within 72 h of treatment with the polysaccharides, expression of IL-7 gene was up-regulated over 2 times. It was also noted that, IEC-6 cells secrete IL-7 cytokine into media when treated with G.uralensis polysaccharides. The secreted IL-7 stimulated proliferation of freshly isolated T lymphocytes within 6 h. The effect of the polysaccharides were found to be molecular weight depended, with low molecular weight having a profound effect compared to high molecular weight and total crude extract.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that G.uralensis polysaccharides especially those of low molecular weight have a potential as anticancer agents. Of great importance, is the ability of the polysaccharides to up-regulate anticancer cytokine IL-7, which is important in proliferation and maturation of immune cells and it is associated with better prognosis in cancer. Therefore, immunomodulation is a possible mode of action of the polysaccharides in cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes by secreted IL-7 Freshly isolated T lymphocytes maintained in supernatants of IEC-6 polysaccharide treated cells. Data represented as mean ± S.E. of two experiments
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Fig4: Activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes by secreted IL-7 Freshly isolated T lymphocytes maintained in supernatants of IEC-6 polysaccharide treated cells. Data represented as mean ± S.E. of two experiments

Mentions: We sought to establish whether the activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes was due to secreted interleukin 7. After a 6 h incubation of the T lymphocytes with various supernatants derived from IEC-6 cells treated with G.uralensis polysaccharides, the T lymphocytes number was determined as a measure of activation and proliferation. From the results, all supernatants of IEC-6 cells treated with G.uralensis polysaccharide showed a slight increase in number of T lymphocytes (Fig. 4). Low molecular weight polysaccharide Fraction B, showed a higher proliferation activity among the three fractions, though there was no significant difference between these fractions.Fig. 4


Immunomodulatory and anticancer potential of Gan cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) polysaccharides by CT-26 colon carcinoma cell growth inhibition and cytokine IL-7 upregulation in vitro.

Ayeka PA, Bian Y, Mwitari PG, Chu X, Zhang Y, Uzayisenga R, Otachi EO - BMC Complement Altern Med (2016)

Activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes by secreted IL-7 Freshly isolated T lymphocytes maintained in supernatants of IEC-6 polysaccharide treated cells. Data represented as mean ± S.E. of two experiments
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940688&req=5

Fig4: Activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes by secreted IL-7 Freshly isolated T lymphocytes maintained in supernatants of IEC-6 polysaccharide treated cells. Data represented as mean ± S.E. of two experiments
Mentions: We sought to establish whether the activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes was due to secreted interleukin 7. After a 6 h incubation of the T lymphocytes with various supernatants derived from IEC-6 cells treated with G.uralensis polysaccharides, the T lymphocytes number was determined as a measure of activation and proliferation. From the results, all supernatants of IEC-6 cells treated with G.uralensis polysaccharide showed a slight increase in number of T lymphocytes (Fig. 4). Low molecular weight polysaccharide Fraction B, showed a higher proliferation activity among the three fractions, though there was no significant difference between these fractions.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: The ED50 was found to be 100 μg/ml.The effect of the polysaccharides were found to be molecular weight depended, with low molecular weight having a profound effect compared to high molecular weight and total crude extract.Therefore, immunomodulation is a possible mode of action of the polysaccharides in cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 312 Anshan Western Road, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300193, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chinese licorice, (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) is one of the commonly prescribed herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Gancao, as commonly known in China, is associated with immune-modulating and anti-tumor potential though the mechanism of action is not well known. In this study, we investigated the in vitro immunomodulatory and antitumor potential of Glycyrrhiza uralensis polysaccharides fractions of high molecular weight (fraction A), low molecular weight (fraction B) and crude extract (fraction C).

Methods: Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity was investigated using Cell Counting kit 8 (CCK-8) on Intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) and Colon carcinoma cell line (CT-26). IL-7 gene expression relative to GAPDH was analysed using Real time PCR. The stimulation and viability of T lymphocytes was determined by Trypan blue exclusion assay.

Results: G.uralensis polysaccharides did not inhibit proliferation of IEC-6 cells even at high concentration. The ED50 was found to be 100 μg/ml. On the other hand, the polysaccharides inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells (CT-26) at a concentration of ≤50 μg/ml. Within 72 h of treatment with the polysaccharides, expression of IL-7 gene was up-regulated over 2 times. It was also noted that, IEC-6 cells secrete IL-7 cytokine into media when treated with G.uralensis polysaccharides. The secreted IL-7 stimulated proliferation of freshly isolated T lymphocytes within 6 h. The effect of the polysaccharides were found to be molecular weight depended, with low molecular weight having a profound effect compared to high molecular weight and total crude extract.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that G.uralensis polysaccharides especially those of low molecular weight have a potential as anticancer agents. Of great importance, is the ability of the polysaccharides to up-regulate anticancer cytokine IL-7, which is important in proliferation and maturation of immune cells and it is associated with better prognosis in cancer. Therefore, immunomodulation is a possible mode of action of the polysaccharides in cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus