Limits...
Immunomodulatory and anticancer potential of Gan cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) polysaccharides by CT-26 colon carcinoma cell growth inhibition and cytokine IL-7 upregulation in vitro.

Ayeka PA, Bian Y, Mwitari PG, Chu X, Zhang Y, Uzayisenga R, Otachi EO - BMC Complement Altern Med (2016)

Bottom Line: The ED50 was found to be 100 μg/ml.The effect of the polysaccharides were found to be molecular weight depended, with low molecular weight having a profound effect compared to high molecular weight and total crude extract.Therefore, immunomodulation is a possible mode of action of the polysaccharides in cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 312 Anshan Western Road, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300193, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chinese licorice, (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) is one of the commonly prescribed herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Gancao, as commonly known in China, is associated with immune-modulating and anti-tumor potential though the mechanism of action is not well known. In this study, we investigated the in vitro immunomodulatory and antitumor potential of Glycyrrhiza uralensis polysaccharides fractions of high molecular weight (fraction A), low molecular weight (fraction B) and crude extract (fraction C).

Methods: Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity was investigated using Cell Counting kit 8 (CCK-8) on Intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) and Colon carcinoma cell line (CT-26). IL-7 gene expression relative to GAPDH was analysed using Real time PCR. The stimulation and viability of T lymphocytes was determined by Trypan blue exclusion assay.

Results: G.uralensis polysaccharides did not inhibit proliferation of IEC-6 cells even at high concentration. The ED50 was found to be 100 μg/ml. On the other hand, the polysaccharides inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells (CT-26) at a concentration of ≤50 μg/ml. Within 72 h of treatment with the polysaccharides, expression of IL-7 gene was up-regulated over 2 times. It was also noted that, IEC-6 cells secrete IL-7 cytokine into media when treated with G.uralensis polysaccharides. The secreted IL-7 stimulated proliferation of freshly isolated T lymphocytes within 6 h. The effect of the polysaccharides were found to be molecular weight depended, with low molecular weight having a profound effect compared to high molecular weight and total crude extract.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that G.uralensis polysaccharides especially those of low molecular weight have a potential as anticancer agents. Of great importance, is the ability of the polysaccharides to up-regulate anticancer cytokine IL-7, which is important in proliferation and maturation of immune cells and it is associated with better prognosis in cancer. Therefore, immunomodulation is a possible mode of action of the polysaccharides in cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

In vitro direct cytotoxic effect of Gancao polysaccharide extracts. Decrease in cell number was observed in CT 26 cells (5 × 104 cells /ml) upon treatment with various concentration of polysaccharides (Fraction a, b and c) from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.8 mg/ml as measured by CCK-8 assay. Data expressed as mean ± SEM of three experiments. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus control
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940688&req=5

Fig2: In vitro direct cytotoxic effect of Gancao polysaccharide extracts. Decrease in cell number was observed in CT 26 cells (5 × 104 cells /ml) upon treatment with various concentration of polysaccharides (Fraction a, b and c) from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.8 mg/ml as measured by CCK-8 assay. Data expressed as mean ± SEM of three experiments. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus control

Mentions: We investigated whether G.uralensis polysaccharides has the same effect of promoting proliferation of epithelial cells on cancer cell lines. Colon cancer cell line (CT-26) was treated with different concentrations of G.uralensis polysaccharides. The polysaccharides showed significant antitumor effects after 72 h. At a concentration of 0.05 mg/ml, growth inhibition was evident (Fig. 2) with nearly 50 % growth inhibition of cancer cells compared to epithelial cells, IEC-6, (Fig. 2). Comparing the three extracts, Fraction B, which is polysaccharide of lower molecular weight showed a higher inhibitory activity than the other fractions, A and C with more than 50 % of the growth inhibition of CT-26 cells at 0.1 mg/ml (Fig. 2). The results indicate that, while the licorice polysaccharides stimulate proliferation of normal cells (IEC-6), they inhibit growth of cancer cells even at low concentration.Fig. 2


Immunomodulatory and anticancer potential of Gan cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) polysaccharides by CT-26 colon carcinoma cell growth inhibition and cytokine IL-7 upregulation in vitro.

Ayeka PA, Bian Y, Mwitari PG, Chu X, Zhang Y, Uzayisenga R, Otachi EO - BMC Complement Altern Med (2016)

In vitro direct cytotoxic effect of Gancao polysaccharide extracts. Decrease in cell number was observed in CT 26 cells (5 × 104 cells /ml) upon treatment with various concentration of polysaccharides (Fraction a, b and c) from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.8 mg/ml as measured by CCK-8 assay. Data expressed as mean ± SEM of three experiments. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus control
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940688&req=5

Fig2: In vitro direct cytotoxic effect of Gancao polysaccharide extracts. Decrease in cell number was observed in CT 26 cells (5 × 104 cells /ml) upon treatment with various concentration of polysaccharides (Fraction a, b and c) from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.8 mg/ml as measured by CCK-8 assay. Data expressed as mean ± SEM of three experiments. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus control
Mentions: We investigated whether G.uralensis polysaccharides has the same effect of promoting proliferation of epithelial cells on cancer cell lines. Colon cancer cell line (CT-26) was treated with different concentrations of G.uralensis polysaccharides. The polysaccharides showed significant antitumor effects after 72 h. At a concentration of 0.05 mg/ml, growth inhibition was evident (Fig. 2) with nearly 50 % growth inhibition of cancer cells compared to epithelial cells, IEC-6, (Fig. 2). Comparing the three extracts, Fraction B, which is polysaccharide of lower molecular weight showed a higher inhibitory activity than the other fractions, A and C with more than 50 % of the growth inhibition of CT-26 cells at 0.1 mg/ml (Fig. 2). The results indicate that, while the licorice polysaccharides stimulate proliferation of normal cells (IEC-6), they inhibit growth of cancer cells even at low concentration.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The ED50 was found to be 100 μg/ml.The effect of the polysaccharides were found to be molecular weight depended, with low molecular weight having a profound effect compared to high molecular weight and total crude extract.Therefore, immunomodulation is a possible mode of action of the polysaccharides in cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 312 Anshan Western Road, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300193, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chinese licorice, (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) is one of the commonly prescribed herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Gancao, as commonly known in China, is associated with immune-modulating and anti-tumor potential though the mechanism of action is not well known. In this study, we investigated the in vitro immunomodulatory and antitumor potential of Glycyrrhiza uralensis polysaccharides fractions of high molecular weight (fraction A), low molecular weight (fraction B) and crude extract (fraction C).

Methods: Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity was investigated using Cell Counting kit 8 (CCK-8) on Intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) and Colon carcinoma cell line (CT-26). IL-7 gene expression relative to GAPDH was analysed using Real time PCR. The stimulation and viability of T lymphocytes was determined by Trypan blue exclusion assay.

Results: G.uralensis polysaccharides did not inhibit proliferation of IEC-6 cells even at high concentration. The ED50 was found to be 100 μg/ml. On the other hand, the polysaccharides inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells (CT-26) at a concentration of ≤50 μg/ml. Within 72 h of treatment with the polysaccharides, expression of IL-7 gene was up-regulated over 2 times. It was also noted that, IEC-6 cells secrete IL-7 cytokine into media when treated with G.uralensis polysaccharides. The secreted IL-7 stimulated proliferation of freshly isolated T lymphocytes within 6 h. The effect of the polysaccharides were found to be molecular weight depended, with low molecular weight having a profound effect compared to high molecular weight and total crude extract.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that G.uralensis polysaccharides especially those of low molecular weight have a potential as anticancer agents. Of great importance, is the ability of the polysaccharides to up-regulate anticancer cytokine IL-7, which is important in proliferation and maturation of immune cells and it is associated with better prognosis in cancer. Therefore, immunomodulation is a possible mode of action of the polysaccharides in cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus