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Positive Affect Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Individuals without Depression.

Martín-María N, Caballero FF, Olaya B, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Haro JM, Miret M, Ayuso-Mateos JL - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: In the analyses adjusted for age, sex, and years of education, all three well-being variables showed separately a statistically significant association with mortality.However, after adjustment for health status and other confounders including the other well-being components, only positive affect remained as marginally associated with a decreased risk of mortality in the overall sample [HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.73-1.03], in particular among individuals without depression [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68-0.99].Future research should focus on assessing interventions associated with a higher level of positive affect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de MadridMadrid, Spain; Department of Psychiatry, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa, Hospital Universitario de La PrincesaMadrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Some studies have analyzed the relation between well-being and mortality but none of them have attempted to disentangle the differential influence that positive affect, negative affect, and evaluative well-being might have on mortality using a longitudinal design in the general population and measuring independently and accurately each component of well-being. The aim of the present study is to assess the association of these well-being components with mortality after adjusting for health and other lifestyle factors and to analyze whether this association is different in people with and without depression.

Methods: A nationally representative sample of 4753 people from Spain was followed up after 3 years. Analyses were performed with Cox regression models among the total sample and separately in people with and without depression.

Results: In the analyses adjusted for age, sex, and years of education, all three well-being variables showed separately a statistically significant association with mortality. However, after adjustment for health status and other confounders including the other well-being components, only positive affect remained as marginally associated with a decreased risk of mortality in the overall sample [HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.73-1.03], in particular among individuals without depression [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68-0.99].

Conclusion: Positive affect is inversely associated with mortality in individuals without depression. Future research should focus on assessing interventions associated with a higher level of positive affect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Proportion of individuals with and without depression surviving over the follow-up period.
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Figure 1: Proportion of individuals with and without depression surviving over the follow-up period.

Mentions: A total of 863 participants presented depression at baseline, and 60 (6.95%) of them died during the follow-up. Before assessing the relationship between the well-being variables and mortality separately in participants with and without depression, the interaction terms between well-being variables and depression were included in the Cox proportional hazards regression model above-mentioned. The results associated to the three interaction terms were not significant although a slight trend was observed in the interaction between positive affect and depression [HR = 1.32; 95% CI = (0.82, 2.10), p = 0.25]. On the other hand, the log-rank test showed that the survival for people with and without depression was different over time [ = 18.99, p < 0.001] (Figure 1). The analyses based on the presence of depression are shown in Table 3, where the HRs, 95% CI, and p-values associated to the relationships between the well-being variables and mortality in the two groups are provided, and where the coefficients associated to the remaining covariates considered are also reported. In people without depression, positive affect was found to be associated with a decreased risk of mortality (HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68–0.99, p = 0.038).


Positive Affect Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Individuals without Depression.

Martín-María N, Caballero FF, Olaya B, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Haro JM, Miret M, Ayuso-Mateos JL - Front Psychol (2016)

Proportion of individuals with and without depression surviving over the follow-up period.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940613&req=5

Figure 1: Proportion of individuals with and without depression surviving over the follow-up period.
Mentions: A total of 863 participants presented depression at baseline, and 60 (6.95%) of them died during the follow-up. Before assessing the relationship between the well-being variables and mortality separately in participants with and without depression, the interaction terms between well-being variables and depression were included in the Cox proportional hazards regression model above-mentioned. The results associated to the three interaction terms were not significant although a slight trend was observed in the interaction between positive affect and depression [HR = 1.32; 95% CI = (0.82, 2.10), p = 0.25]. On the other hand, the log-rank test showed that the survival for people with and without depression was different over time [ = 18.99, p < 0.001] (Figure 1). The analyses based on the presence of depression are shown in Table 3, where the HRs, 95% CI, and p-values associated to the relationships between the well-being variables and mortality in the two groups are provided, and where the coefficients associated to the remaining covariates considered are also reported. In people without depression, positive affect was found to be associated with a decreased risk of mortality (HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68–0.99, p = 0.038).

Bottom Line: In the analyses adjusted for age, sex, and years of education, all three well-being variables showed separately a statistically significant association with mortality.However, after adjustment for health status and other confounders including the other well-being components, only positive affect remained as marginally associated with a decreased risk of mortality in the overall sample [HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.73-1.03], in particular among individuals without depression [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68-0.99].Future research should focus on assessing interventions associated with a higher level of positive affect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de MadridMadrid, Spain; Department of Psychiatry, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa, Hospital Universitario de La PrincesaMadrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: Some studies have analyzed the relation between well-being and mortality but none of them have attempted to disentangle the differential influence that positive affect, negative affect, and evaluative well-being might have on mortality using a longitudinal design in the general population and measuring independently and accurately each component of well-being. The aim of the present study is to assess the association of these well-being components with mortality after adjusting for health and other lifestyle factors and to analyze whether this association is different in people with and without depression.

Methods: A nationally representative sample of 4753 people from Spain was followed up after 3 years. Analyses were performed with Cox regression models among the total sample and separately in people with and without depression.

Results: In the analyses adjusted for age, sex, and years of education, all three well-being variables showed separately a statistically significant association with mortality. However, after adjustment for health status and other confounders including the other well-being components, only positive affect remained as marginally associated with a decreased risk of mortality in the overall sample [HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.73-1.03], in particular among individuals without depression [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68-0.99].

Conclusion: Positive affect is inversely associated with mortality in individuals without depression. Future research should focus on assessing interventions associated with a higher level of positive affect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus