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The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Stroke.

Bu J, Dou Y, Tian X, Wang Z, Chen G - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2016)

Bottom Line: Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer.Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases.In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery & Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006, China.

ABSTRACT
Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The classification of fatty acids.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: The classification of fatty acids.

Mentions: According to the number of double bonds in fatty acid side chains, the natural fats are classified into 3 subsets: saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. The classification of fatty acids is shown in Figure 1. And there is a fourth artificial subset, trans fats, which is created by hydrogenation [4]. Polyunsaturated fats are further classified into 2 subsets by the first double bond: omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. n-3 PUFAs have the first double bond at the third carbon from the methyl terminal, whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have the first double bond at the sixth carbon [5]. Mammalian cells are short of the desaturase that can convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs, which means that n-3 PUFAs must be supplied with the diet. Fish, such as mackerel, salmon, sardines, halibut, herring, and tuna, in the human diet is the major source of n-3 PUFAs, containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Quite a few kinds of vegetables and vegetable oil, such as flaxseeds, canola, pumpkin seeds, flaxseed oil, canola oil, and perilla seed oil, also can provide n-3 PUFAs, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which can be converted to EPA and further to DHA by a desaturase enzyme [6]. Isotope-labeled ALA trials suggested that the conversion of natural ALA to EPA is between 0.2% and 21% and further to DHA is between 0% and 9% [7]. The conversion of ALA to DHA and EPA is likely influenced by the competitive inhibition of linoleic acid and negative feedback of DHA and EPA [8]. And the interconversion is limited. So the best way to increase fatty acids intake is to supplement them with specific fatty acids [9].


The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Stroke.

Bu J, Dou Y, Tian X, Wang Z, Chen G - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2016)

The classification of fatty acids.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940554&req=5

fig1: The classification of fatty acids.
Mentions: According to the number of double bonds in fatty acid side chains, the natural fats are classified into 3 subsets: saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. The classification of fatty acids is shown in Figure 1. And there is a fourth artificial subset, trans fats, which is created by hydrogenation [4]. Polyunsaturated fats are further classified into 2 subsets by the first double bond: omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. n-3 PUFAs have the first double bond at the third carbon from the methyl terminal, whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have the first double bond at the sixth carbon [5]. Mammalian cells are short of the desaturase that can convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs, which means that n-3 PUFAs must be supplied with the diet. Fish, such as mackerel, salmon, sardines, halibut, herring, and tuna, in the human diet is the major source of n-3 PUFAs, containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Quite a few kinds of vegetables and vegetable oil, such as flaxseeds, canola, pumpkin seeds, flaxseed oil, canola oil, and perilla seed oil, also can provide n-3 PUFAs, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which can be converted to EPA and further to DHA by a desaturase enzyme [6]. Isotope-labeled ALA trials suggested that the conversion of natural ALA to EPA is between 0.2% and 21% and further to DHA is between 0% and 9% [7]. The conversion of ALA to DHA and EPA is likely influenced by the competitive inhibition of linoleic acid and negative feedback of DHA and EPA [8]. And the interconversion is limited. So the best way to increase fatty acids intake is to supplement them with specific fatty acids [9].

Bottom Line: Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer.Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases.In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurosurgery & Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006, China.

ABSTRACT
Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus