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Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing.

Salmi M - J Med Eng (2016)

Bottom Line: Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros.Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion.Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aalto University, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo, Finland.

ABSTRACT
Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed.

No MeSH data available.


Hollow heart made by material extrusion and solid heart made by binder jetting.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Hollow heart made by material extrusion and solid heart made by binder jetting.

Mentions: Heart operation requires well-known anatomy of the heart. Normally hearts consist of similar structures; there are only small size and shape variations. In the cases where there are deformations or heart has been previously operated on there is a need for more accurate anatomic examination. Presented case patient has previous deformations and operations so surgeons feel that preoperative model would help them to plan the surgery beforehand and achieve better results. The heart was imaged with computed tomography, using contrast agent to separate heart from surrounding tissues. Layer thickness in the imaging was 600 μm. 3D model was reconstructed using Osirix 5.7 (open source) with 130 Hounsfield (HU) value. For other model preparation such as repairing and hollowing 3Data Expert 10.2.1 (DeskArtes Oy) was selected as software. First the different shells were separated from each other using verified shell and repair command. In the same function also gaps thinner than 0.17 mm were stitched; fill all gaps after that, and remove tiny shell less than 0.01% of total size. The automatic repairing was performed three times and after that errors left were repaired manually one triangle per time. When the model was repaired enough it was hollowed using offset command with 2 mm offset. After offsetting model was again automatically and manually repaired. The model was separated into two parts using split command. Two different kinds of 3D model from heart were made, hollow one with 2 pieces and solid one. Both models are shown in Figure 1.


Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing.

Salmi M - J Med Eng (2016)

Hollow heart made by material extrusion and solid heart made by binder jetting.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940539&req=5

fig1: Hollow heart made by material extrusion and solid heart made by binder jetting.
Mentions: Heart operation requires well-known anatomy of the heart. Normally hearts consist of similar structures; there are only small size and shape variations. In the cases where there are deformations or heart has been previously operated on there is a need for more accurate anatomic examination. Presented case patient has previous deformations and operations so surgeons feel that preoperative model would help them to plan the surgery beforehand and achieve better results. The heart was imaged with computed tomography, using contrast agent to separate heart from surrounding tissues. Layer thickness in the imaging was 600 μm. 3D model was reconstructed using Osirix 5.7 (open source) with 130 Hounsfield (HU) value. For other model preparation such as repairing and hollowing 3Data Expert 10.2.1 (DeskArtes Oy) was selected as software. First the different shells were separated from each other using verified shell and repair command. In the same function also gaps thinner than 0.17 mm were stitched; fill all gaps after that, and remove tiny shell less than 0.01% of total size. The automatic repairing was performed three times and after that errors left were repaired manually one triangle per time. When the model was repaired enough it was hollowed using offset command with 2 mm offset. After offsetting model was again automatically and manually repaired. The model was separated into two parts using split command. Two different kinds of 3D model from heart were made, hollow one with 2 pieces and solid one. Both models are shown in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros.Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion.Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aalto University, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo, Finland.

ABSTRACT
Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed.

No MeSH data available.