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Geographical Distribution and New Situation of Leishmania Species after the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Foci in Errachidia Province, Morocco, in 2014.

Mohamed Mahmoud el A, Faiza S, Lemine M, Smaine C, Adlaoui el B, Khalid H, Abderrahim S, Hajiba F - Biomed Res Int (2016)

Bottom Line: The number of cases declined sharply and decreased from 3445 cases in 2010 to 8 cases in 2014 following the control action plan interventions.This is the first molecular identification of L. tropica in Errachidia province.The detection of this species after the intensified control measures strategies suggests that it was probably dissipated through the dominance of L. major.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Reference Laboratory of Leishmaniasis, National Institute of Hygiene, 27 Avenue Ibn Battuta, Agdal, 11400 Rabat, Morocco; Laboratory of Zoology and General Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Avenue Ibn Battouta, BP 1014, 10000 Rabat, Morocco.

ABSTRACT
In Errachidia province, the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has increased over the past decade and it was higher in 2010 (860.34 per 100,000 inhabitants), with 3445 cases. The number of cases declined sharply and decreased from 3445 cases in 2010 to 8 cases in 2014 following the control action plan interventions. The total of patients was diagnosed only on clinical basis and the lesions were considered caused by L. major. The epidemiological study was conducted between 2001 and 2014 and the molecular detection of CL was studied to identify the circulating parasite species in this province by using the ITS1-PCR-RFLP methods. In 2010, the molecular identification of 11 samples revealed the presence of L. major in the most affected circles: Goulmima, Er-Rissani, and Errachidia. In 2014 the molecular characterization of 7 among 8 cases reported in this year showed the presence of L. tropica in Errachidia circle. This is the first molecular identification of L. tropica in Errachidia province. The detection of this species after the intensified control measures strategies suggests that it was probably dissipated through the dominance of L. major.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Repartition of M. shawi rodent and densities of P. papatasi and CL caused by L. major distributions in Morocco from 2001 to 2014 [1, 7, 10].
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fig1: Repartition of M. shawi rodent and densities of P. papatasi and CL caused by L. major distributions in Morocco from 2001 to 2014 [1, 7, 10].

Mentions: In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by three species of Leishmania: L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum. CL due to L. major is considered as a major public health threat. The clinical characteristic is a single localized cutaneous lesion, which is often severely inflamed as well as ulcerated and healing within 2–8 months, but a polymorphism can be observed [1, 2]. This disease is characterized by its wide geographical distribution in arid zones in the palm groves of the southern foothills of the Anti-Atlas and High Atlas, especially in Jerada, Figuig, Errachidia, Ouarzazate, Zagora, and Tata provinces (Figure 1) [1]. The distribution of L. major is conditioned by the presence of suitable reservoir hosts mainly the commensal rodent Meriones shawi (M. shawi) and sand fly vector mainly Phlebotomus papatasi [3]. The parasite-reservoir host combination was subsequently observed by formal identification of the parasite [4–6]. This reservoir (M. shawi rodent) is the most ubiquitous species in Morocco and its distribution largely exceeds L. major repartition [7], proving its role in transmission of disease. In terms of vectors, the bioclimate affects the vectors distribution and density and hence disease prevalence [8]; P. papatasi is the main vector of L. major, found common to all environments but with a varied predominance, especially in saharan environment where it was the most prevalent species [9]. The CL caused by L. major in Morocco is located in the east of the country [1], which is consistent also with the high densities of vectors and rodents in the south and southeast of country according to Laqraa et al. [10] and Echchakery et al. [7], respectively. The M. shawi-P. papatasi-L. major association seems to constitute quite stable zoonotic systems as shown in Figure 1. Isoenzymatic characterization of L. major indicated the presence of a unique zymodeme MON-25 [8]. In 2010, the number of L. major cases saw a great increase with 6444 cases; the highest rate was recorded in Errachidia province including over than 3000 cases recorded. In 2011, the number of cases saw a large decrease following the control action plan interventions. In the present study, after the new epidemiological situation and a better control of leishmaniasis adopted, an epidemiological study and ITS1-PCR method were used for update and identification of Leishmania parasite species responsible for the recent CL cases in Errachidia province.


Geographical Distribution and New Situation of Leishmania Species after the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Foci in Errachidia Province, Morocco, in 2014.

Mohamed Mahmoud el A, Faiza S, Lemine M, Smaine C, Adlaoui el B, Khalid H, Abderrahim S, Hajiba F - Biomed Res Int (2016)

Repartition of M. shawi rodent and densities of P. papatasi and CL caused by L. major distributions in Morocco from 2001 to 2014 [1, 7, 10].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940537&req=5

fig1: Repartition of M. shawi rodent and densities of P. papatasi and CL caused by L. major distributions in Morocco from 2001 to 2014 [1, 7, 10].
Mentions: In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by three species of Leishmania: L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum. CL due to L. major is considered as a major public health threat. The clinical characteristic is a single localized cutaneous lesion, which is often severely inflamed as well as ulcerated and healing within 2–8 months, but a polymorphism can be observed [1, 2]. This disease is characterized by its wide geographical distribution in arid zones in the palm groves of the southern foothills of the Anti-Atlas and High Atlas, especially in Jerada, Figuig, Errachidia, Ouarzazate, Zagora, and Tata provinces (Figure 1) [1]. The distribution of L. major is conditioned by the presence of suitable reservoir hosts mainly the commensal rodent Meriones shawi (M. shawi) and sand fly vector mainly Phlebotomus papatasi [3]. The parasite-reservoir host combination was subsequently observed by formal identification of the parasite [4–6]. This reservoir (M. shawi rodent) is the most ubiquitous species in Morocco and its distribution largely exceeds L. major repartition [7], proving its role in transmission of disease. In terms of vectors, the bioclimate affects the vectors distribution and density and hence disease prevalence [8]; P. papatasi is the main vector of L. major, found common to all environments but with a varied predominance, especially in saharan environment where it was the most prevalent species [9]. The CL caused by L. major in Morocco is located in the east of the country [1], which is consistent also with the high densities of vectors and rodents in the south and southeast of country according to Laqraa et al. [10] and Echchakery et al. [7], respectively. The M. shawi-P. papatasi-L. major association seems to constitute quite stable zoonotic systems as shown in Figure 1. Isoenzymatic characterization of L. major indicated the presence of a unique zymodeme MON-25 [8]. In 2010, the number of L. major cases saw a great increase with 6444 cases; the highest rate was recorded in Errachidia province including over than 3000 cases recorded. In 2011, the number of cases saw a large decrease following the control action plan interventions. In the present study, after the new epidemiological situation and a better control of leishmaniasis adopted, an epidemiological study and ITS1-PCR method were used for update and identification of Leishmania parasite species responsible for the recent CL cases in Errachidia province.

Bottom Line: The number of cases declined sharply and decreased from 3445 cases in 2010 to 8 cases in 2014 following the control action plan interventions.This is the first molecular identification of L. tropica in Errachidia province.The detection of this species after the intensified control measures strategies suggests that it was probably dissipated through the dominance of L. major.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Reference Laboratory of Leishmaniasis, National Institute of Hygiene, 27 Avenue Ibn Battuta, Agdal, 11400 Rabat, Morocco; Laboratory of Zoology and General Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Avenue Ibn Battouta, BP 1014, 10000 Rabat, Morocco.

ABSTRACT
In Errachidia province, the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has increased over the past decade and it was higher in 2010 (860.34 per 100,000 inhabitants), with 3445 cases. The number of cases declined sharply and decreased from 3445 cases in 2010 to 8 cases in 2014 following the control action plan interventions. The total of patients was diagnosed only on clinical basis and the lesions were considered caused by L. major. The epidemiological study was conducted between 2001 and 2014 and the molecular detection of CL was studied to identify the circulating parasite species in this province by using the ITS1-PCR-RFLP methods. In 2010, the molecular identification of 11 samples revealed the presence of L. major in the most affected circles: Goulmima, Er-Rissani, and Errachidia. In 2014 the molecular characterization of 7 among 8 cases reported in this year showed the presence of L. tropica in Errachidia circle. This is the first molecular identification of L. tropica in Errachidia province. The detection of this species after the intensified control measures strategies suggests that it was probably dissipated through the dominance of L. major.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus