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Florivory and pollinator visitation: a cautionary tale

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Floral herbivory can make flowers less attractive to pollinators. To study the effect of floral herbivory on pollination in the hummingbird-pollinated sticky monkeyflower, we conducted field observations and experiments. We used two indicators of pollinator visitation: stigma closure and the presence of microorganisms in floral nectar. The field observations revealed that stigma closure was less frequent in damaged flowers than in intact flowers. In the experiments, however, floral damage did not decrease stigma closure or microbial detection. These results tell a cautionary tale: a negative association between florivory and pollinator visitation can be observed without florivory affecting pollinator visitation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mosaic plot summarizing field observations on the frequency of stigma closure of intact and damaged flowers depending on flower age. Black bars represent flowers with closed stigmas, and white bars represent flowers with open stigma. The area of the tiles is proportional to the number of observations in the corresponding category of flower age and damage status (total number of flowers observed = 500).
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plw036-F3: Mosaic plot summarizing field observations on the frequency of stigma closure of intact and damaged flowers depending on flower age. Black bars represent flowers with closed stigmas, and white bars represent flowers with open stigma. The area of the tiles is proportional to the number of observations in the corresponding category of flower age and damage status (total number of flowers observed = 500).

Mentions: Stigma closure was significantly related to flower age, flower damage, their interaction, shrub individual and observation site (Table 2). Frequency of stigma closure increased significantly with increasing flower age and was significantly lower in damaged flowers (34.5 %) than in intact flowers (76.4 %) when old flowers were observed (Fig. 3). Similarly, the likelihood of observing flower damage itself varied significantly with flower age, shrub individual and observation site [see Supporting Information – Table 1 and Fig. 1]). At the site scale, the frequency of stigma closure was negatively correlated with the proportion of floral damage (t = −3.39, P = 0.019 [see Supporting Information – Fig. 2]).Figure 3.


Florivory and pollinator visitation: a cautionary tale
Mosaic plot summarizing field observations on the frequency of stigma closure of intact and damaged flowers depending on flower age. Black bars represent flowers with closed stigmas, and white bars represent flowers with open stigma. The area of the tiles is proportional to the number of observations in the corresponding category of flower age and damage status (total number of flowers observed = 500).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940504&req=5

plw036-F3: Mosaic plot summarizing field observations on the frequency of stigma closure of intact and damaged flowers depending on flower age. Black bars represent flowers with closed stigmas, and white bars represent flowers with open stigma. The area of the tiles is proportional to the number of observations in the corresponding category of flower age and damage status (total number of flowers observed = 500).
Mentions: Stigma closure was significantly related to flower age, flower damage, their interaction, shrub individual and observation site (Table 2). Frequency of stigma closure increased significantly with increasing flower age and was significantly lower in damaged flowers (34.5 %) than in intact flowers (76.4 %) when old flowers were observed (Fig. 3). Similarly, the likelihood of observing flower damage itself varied significantly with flower age, shrub individual and observation site [see Supporting Information – Table 1 and Fig. 1]). At the site scale, the frequency of stigma closure was negatively correlated with the proportion of floral damage (t = −3.39, P = 0.019 [see Supporting Information – Fig. 2]).Figure 3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Floral herbivory can make flowers less attractive to pollinators. To study the effect of floral herbivory on pollination in the hummingbird-pollinated sticky monkeyflower, we conducted field observations and experiments. We used two indicators of pollinator visitation: stigma closure and the presence of microorganisms in floral nectar. The field observations revealed that stigma closure was less frequent in damaged flowers than in intact flowers. In the experiments, however, floral damage did not decrease stigma closure or microbial detection. These results tell a cautionary tale: a negative association between florivory and pollinator visitation can be observed without florivory affecting pollinator visitation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus