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Foraging responses of bumble bees to rewardless floral patches: importance of within-plant variance in nectar presentation

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nectar foraging pollinators flexibly respond to the reward condition of floral patches. To evaluate the effects of unrewarding experience, we compared foraging behaviours of bumble bees between naturally rewarding and artificially rewardless (i.e., nectary removed) patches in aconite populations. Bees increased movements between inflorescences instead of leaving the patches when they faced rewardless flowers. Because the nectar reward was highly variable among flowers within plants in the aconite populations, they could be rewarded by the adjacent inflorescences even after unrewarding experiences. Completely rewardless plants might be pollinated successfully in rewarding populations if surrounding plants provide a highly variable nectar reward.

No MeSH data available.


(A) The ratio of visited flowers to the total flowers per inflorescence (corresponds to successive flower visits within inflorescences), (B) The ratio of visited inflorescences to the total inflorescences per patch (corresponds to successive inflorescence visits within patches) and (C) The ratio of visited flowers to the total flowers per patch (corresponds to total flower visits within patches). Grey boxes indicate the grassland site, and white indicate the forest site. Figures in the parentheses represent sample sizes. The lower ends of the boxes represent the first quartiles and the upper the third quartiles, the segments inside the boxes indicate medians, whiskers above and below the boxes indicate the minimums and maximums within the range of 1.5 times of interquartile range from the upper or the lower quartiles, and outliers are represented by open circles.
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plw037-F2: (A) The ratio of visited flowers to the total flowers per inflorescence (corresponds to successive flower visits within inflorescences), (B) The ratio of visited inflorescences to the total inflorescences per patch (corresponds to successive inflorescence visits within patches) and (C) The ratio of visited flowers to the total flowers per patch (corresponds to total flower visits within patches). Grey boxes indicate the grassland site, and white indicate the forest site. Figures in the parentheses represent sample sizes. The lower ends of the boxes represent the first quartiles and the upper the third quartiles, the segments inside the boxes indicate medians, whiskers above and below the boxes indicate the minimums and maximums within the range of 1.5 times of interquartile range from the upper or the lower quartiles, and outliers are represented by open circles.

Mentions: Bumble bees visited 2.0 ± 1.1 flowers (54 % flowers per inflorescence) and 2.2 ± 1.3 flowers (51 %) within the control inflorescences in the forest and grassland sites, respectively. Within the rewardless inflorescences, bumble bees visited 2.0 ± 1.1 flowers (39 %) and 1.8 ± 1.2 flowers (43 %) in the forest and grassland sites, respectively (Fig. 2A). Bumble bees visited fewer flowers within inflorescences at the rewardless patches (P = 0.014) and more flowers in larger inflorescences (P < 0.01; Table 2), while site effect was excluded by AIC.Figure 2.


Foraging responses of bumble bees to rewardless floral patches: importance of within-plant variance in nectar presentation
(A) The ratio of visited flowers to the total flowers per inflorescence (corresponds to successive flower visits within inflorescences), (B) The ratio of visited inflorescences to the total inflorescences per patch (corresponds to successive inflorescence visits within patches) and (C) The ratio of visited flowers to the total flowers per patch (corresponds to total flower visits within patches). Grey boxes indicate the grassland site, and white indicate the forest site. Figures in the parentheses represent sample sizes. The lower ends of the boxes represent the first quartiles and the upper the third quartiles, the segments inside the boxes indicate medians, whiskers above and below the boxes indicate the minimums and maximums within the range of 1.5 times of interquartile range from the upper or the lower quartiles, and outliers are represented by open circles.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940503&req=5

plw037-F2: (A) The ratio of visited flowers to the total flowers per inflorescence (corresponds to successive flower visits within inflorescences), (B) The ratio of visited inflorescences to the total inflorescences per patch (corresponds to successive inflorescence visits within patches) and (C) The ratio of visited flowers to the total flowers per patch (corresponds to total flower visits within patches). Grey boxes indicate the grassland site, and white indicate the forest site. Figures in the parentheses represent sample sizes. The lower ends of the boxes represent the first quartiles and the upper the third quartiles, the segments inside the boxes indicate medians, whiskers above and below the boxes indicate the minimums and maximums within the range of 1.5 times of interquartile range from the upper or the lower quartiles, and outliers are represented by open circles.
Mentions: Bumble bees visited 2.0 ± 1.1 flowers (54 % flowers per inflorescence) and 2.2 ± 1.3 flowers (51 %) within the control inflorescences in the forest and grassland sites, respectively. Within the rewardless inflorescences, bumble bees visited 2.0 ± 1.1 flowers (39 %) and 1.8 ± 1.2 flowers (43 %) in the forest and grassland sites, respectively (Fig. 2A). Bumble bees visited fewer flowers within inflorescences at the rewardless patches (P = 0.014) and more flowers in larger inflorescences (P < 0.01; Table 2), while site effect was excluded by AIC.Figure 2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nectar foraging pollinators flexibly respond to the reward condition of floral patches. To evaluate the effects of unrewarding experience, we compared foraging behaviours of bumble bees between naturally rewarding and artificially rewardless (i.e., nectary removed) patches in aconite populations. Bees increased movements between inflorescences instead of leaving the patches when they faced rewardless flowers. Because the nectar reward was highly variable among flowers within plants in the aconite populations, they could be rewarded by the adjacent inflorescences even after unrewarding experiences. Completely rewardless plants might be pollinated successfully in rewarding populations if surrounding plants provide a highly variable nectar reward.

No MeSH data available.