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Foraging responses of bumble bees to rewardless floral patches: importance of within-plant variance in nectar presentation

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nectar foraging pollinators flexibly respond to the reward condition of floral patches. To evaluate the effects of unrewarding experience, we compared foraging behaviours of bumble bees between naturally rewarding and artificially rewardless (i.e., nectary removed) patches in aconite populations. Bees increased movements between inflorescences instead of leaving the patches when they faced rewardless flowers. Because the nectar reward was highly variable among flowers within plants in the aconite populations, they could be rewarded by the adjacent inflorescences even after unrewarding experiences. Completely rewardless plants might be pollinated successfully in rewarding populations if surrounding plants provide a highly variable nectar reward.

No MeSH data available.


Visitation frequency of bumble bees to the control and rewardless patches. Grey boxes indicate rewardless patches and white indicate control patches. Figures in the parentheses represent sample sizes. The lower ends of the boxes represent the first quartiles and the upper the third quartiles, the segments inside the boxes indicate medians, and whiskers above and below the boxes indicate the minimums and maximums.
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plw037-F1: Visitation frequency of bumble bees to the control and rewardless patches. Grey boxes indicate rewardless patches and white indicate control patches. Figures in the parentheses represent sample sizes. The lower ends of the boxes represent the first quartiles and the upper the third quartiles, the segments inside the boxes indicate medians, and whiskers above and below the boxes indicate the minimums and maximums.

Mentions: All visitors were B. diversus tersatus during the sessions in both sites. We observed 159 visits in total; most of the visits were by workers, and only 6 of them were by queens. Visitation frequencies to patches per 90 min were 21.3 ± 4.3 (mean ± SD) and 4.5 ± 2.6 at the control and rewardless patches in the forest site, respectively, and 11.0 ± 8.8 and 3.0 ± 2.3 in the grassland site, respectively (Fig. 1). Visitation frequency was significantly lower in the grassland site (P = 0.011), lower at the rewardless patches (P < 0.01), and tended to increase with inflorescence density (P = 0.087; Table 2). The interaction between site and treatment was excluded by AIC.Figure 1.


Foraging responses of bumble bees to rewardless floral patches: importance of within-plant variance in nectar presentation
Visitation frequency of bumble bees to the control and rewardless patches. Grey boxes indicate rewardless patches and white indicate control patches. Figures in the parentheses represent sample sizes. The lower ends of the boxes represent the first quartiles and the upper the third quartiles, the segments inside the boxes indicate medians, and whiskers above and below the boxes indicate the minimums and maximums.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940503&req=5

plw037-F1: Visitation frequency of bumble bees to the control and rewardless patches. Grey boxes indicate rewardless patches and white indicate control patches. Figures in the parentheses represent sample sizes. The lower ends of the boxes represent the first quartiles and the upper the third quartiles, the segments inside the boxes indicate medians, and whiskers above and below the boxes indicate the minimums and maximums.
Mentions: All visitors were B. diversus tersatus during the sessions in both sites. We observed 159 visits in total; most of the visits were by workers, and only 6 of them were by queens. Visitation frequencies to patches per 90 min were 21.3 ± 4.3 (mean ± SD) and 4.5 ± 2.6 at the control and rewardless patches in the forest site, respectively, and 11.0 ± 8.8 and 3.0 ± 2.3 in the grassland site, respectively (Fig. 1). Visitation frequency was significantly lower in the grassland site (P = 0.011), lower at the rewardless patches (P < 0.01), and tended to increase with inflorescence density (P = 0.087; Table 2). The interaction between site and treatment was excluded by AIC.Figure 1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nectar foraging pollinators flexibly respond to the reward condition of floral patches. To evaluate the effects of unrewarding experience, we compared foraging behaviours of bumble bees between naturally rewarding and artificially rewardless (i.e., nectary removed) patches in aconite populations. Bees increased movements between inflorescences instead of leaving the patches when they faced rewardless flowers. Because the nectar reward was highly variable among flowers within plants in the aconite populations, they could be rewarded by the adjacent inflorescences even after unrewarding experiences. Completely rewardless plants might be pollinated successfully in rewarding populations if surrounding plants provide a highly variable nectar reward.

No MeSH data available.