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Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient

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ABSTRACT

We found that Salvia nubicola distributed along a broad altitudinal gradient developed a range of defence strategies against insect herbivores. The strategies, however, do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with the altitudinal gradient along which herbivore pressure is decreasing. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding trade-offs among them could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with changes in plant-herbivore interactions as a consequence of future climate change.

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Diagram indicating relationship among plant growth and defence traits (PCA analysis). First axis explains 66.25% of variability in the data and second axis additional 14.68%. Altitude and field herbivory were added as supplementary variables and were not thus part of the analysis. Stem no (3) indicates number of stems after three months growth. Traits within growth and two defence strategies significantly correlated with altitude (direct defence and indirect defence) were in italics, bold and underlined, respectively.
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plw026-F7: Diagram indicating relationship among plant growth and defence traits (PCA analysis). First axis explains 66.25% of variability in the data and second axis additional 14.68%. Altitude and field herbivory were added as supplementary variables and were not thus part of the analysis. Stem no (3) indicates number of stems after three months growth. Traits within growth and two defence strategies significantly correlated with altitude (direct defence and indirect defence) were in italics, bold and underlined, respectively.

Mentions: When we compared all plant growth and defence traits correlated with altitude in multivariate PCA analysis, the first axis explained 66.25% of the variability in the data and the second axis added 14.68% (Fig. 7). While we plotted only plant defence traits correlated with altitude, the different traits are largely uncorrelated (Fig. 7, see SupportingInformation for more details of results – File 5). The exceptions were the negative correlations between salicin content and most of the growth traits (see SupportingInformation for more details of the results – File 3).Figure 7.


Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient
Diagram indicating relationship among plant growth and defence traits (PCA analysis). First axis explains 66.25% of variability in the data and second axis additional 14.68%. Altitude and field herbivory were added as supplementary variables and were not thus part of the analysis. Stem no (3) indicates number of stems after three months growth. Traits within growth and two defence strategies significantly correlated with altitude (direct defence and indirect defence) were in italics, bold and underlined, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940502&req=5

plw026-F7: Diagram indicating relationship among plant growth and defence traits (PCA analysis). First axis explains 66.25% of variability in the data and second axis additional 14.68%. Altitude and field herbivory were added as supplementary variables and were not thus part of the analysis. Stem no (3) indicates number of stems after three months growth. Traits within growth and two defence strategies significantly correlated with altitude (direct defence and indirect defence) were in italics, bold and underlined, respectively.
Mentions: When we compared all plant growth and defence traits correlated with altitude in multivariate PCA analysis, the first axis explained 66.25% of the variability in the data and the second axis added 14.68% (Fig. 7). While we plotted only plant defence traits correlated with altitude, the different traits are largely uncorrelated (Fig. 7, see SupportingInformation for more details of results – File 5). The exceptions were the negative correlations between salicin content and most of the growth traits (see SupportingInformation for more details of the results – File 3).Figure 7.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

We found that Salvia nubicola distributed along a broad altitudinal gradient developed a range of defence strategies against insect herbivores. The strategies, however, do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with the altitudinal gradient along which herbivore pressure is decreasing. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding trade-offs among them could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with changes in plant-herbivore interactions as a consequence of future climate change.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus