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Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient

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ABSTRACT

We found that Salvia nubicola distributed along a broad altitudinal gradient developed a range of defence strategies against insect herbivores. The strategies, however, do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with the altitudinal gradient along which herbivore pressure is decreasing. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding trade-offs among them could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with changes in plant-herbivore interactions as a consequence of future climate change.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of clipping (simulated herbivore treatment) and altitude on production of (A) total VOCs and (B) (Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl acetate. C, E and C × E indicate effects of clipping treatment, altitude and their interaction, respectively. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; n.s. non-significant. MPA = mean peak area. Population means and SE are shown.
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plw026-F6: Effect of clipping (simulated herbivore treatment) and altitude on production of (A) total VOCs and (B) (Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl acetate. C, E and C × E indicate effects of clipping treatment, altitude and their interaction, respectively. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; n.s. non-significant. MPA = mean peak area. Population means and SE are shown.

Mentions: While there was no overall significant effect of altitude on VOC production, clipping treatment explained 22.5% of variability in the data (F1,1168 = 11.9, P = 0.002, Fig. 6A). Among 30 VOCs responsible for most variability in the data caused by clipping treatment, there were five heterocyclic compounds, 11 terpens, 11 alcohols, aldehydes or ketones and four esters. VOC production was increased due to clipping treatment 5–144 times compared to unclipped treatment for these compounds. VOCs most strongly affected by clipping were Valencene, (Z)-Linalool oxide (furanoid) and 5-Ethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Table 3). VOCs with mean highest production were (E)-2-Hexenal, (Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl acetate and (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol (Table 3). Production of four of the 30 VOCs affected by clipping were correlated with altitude ((Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl acetate, F1,18 = 5.77, P = 0.03; (Z)-3-Hexenyl isovalerate, F1,18 = 3.97, P = 0.06; Caryophyllene (E), F1,18 = 3.49, P = 0.08; δ-Cadinene, F1,18 = 5.88, P = 0.03) with plants from lower altitudes producing more VOCs compared to plants from higher altitudes (Fig. 6B and Table 2). Clipped plants produced 3.5, 5.7, 3.5 and 4.3% less of (Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-3-Hexenyl isovalerate, Caryophyllene (E) and δ-Cadinene per each 100 m of altitudinal increase.Figure 6.


Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient
Effect of clipping (simulated herbivore treatment) and altitude on production of (A) total VOCs and (B) (Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl acetate. C, E and C × E indicate effects of clipping treatment, altitude and their interaction, respectively. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; n.s. non-significant. MPA = mean peak area. Population means and SE are shown.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940502&req=5

plw026-F6: Effect of clipping (simulated herbivore treatment) and altitude on production of (A) total VOCs and (B) (Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl acetate. C, E and C × E indicate effects of clipping treatment, altitude and their interaction, respectively. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; n.s. non-significant. MPA = mean peak area. Population means and SE are shown.
Mentions: While there was no overall significant effect of altitude on VOC production, clipping treatment explained 22.5% of variability in the data (F1,1168 = 11.9, P = 0.002, Fig. 6A). Among 30 VOCs responsible for most variability in the data caused by clipping treatment, there were five heterocyclic compounds, 11 terpens, 11 alcohols, aldehydes or ketones and four esters. VOC production was increased due to clipping treatment 5–144 times compared to unclipped treatment for these compounds. VOCs most strongly affected by clipping were Valencene, (Z)-Linalool oxide (furanoid) and 5-Ethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Table 3). VOCs with mean highest production were (E)-2-Hexenal, (Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl acetate and (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol (Table 3). Production of four of the 30 VOCs affected by clipping were correlated with altitude ((Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl acetate, F1,18 = 5.77, P = 0.03; (Z)-3-Hexenyl isovalerate, F1,18 = 3.97, P = 0.06; Caryophyllene (E), F1,18 = 3.49, P = 0.08; δ-Cadinene, F1,18 = 5.88, P = 0.03) with plants from lower altitudes producing more VOCs compared to plants from higher altitudes (Fig. 6B and Table 2). Clipped plants produced 3.5, 5.7, 3.5 and 4.3% less of (Z)-3-Hexen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-3-Hexenyl isovalerate, Caryophyllene (E) and δ-Cadinene per each 100 m of altitudinal increase.Figure 6.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

We found that Salvia nubicola distributed along a broad altitudinal gradient developed a range of defence strategies against insect herbivores. The strategies, however, do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with the altitudinal gradient along which herbivore pressure is decreasing. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding trade-offs among them could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with changes in plant-herbivore interactions as a consequence of future climate change.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus