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Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient

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ABSTRACT

We found that Salvia nubicola distributed along a broad altitudinal gradient developed a range of defence strategies against insect herbivores. The strategies, however, do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with the altitudinal gradient along which herbivore pressure is decreasing. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding trade-offs among them could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with changes in plant-herbivore interactions as a consequence of future climate change.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of methanolic extracts from S. nubicola on relative growth rate of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Methanolic extracts were extracted from plants from population at 2729 m a.s.l. Columns sharing the same letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05). Means and SE are shown.
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plw026-F5: Effect of methanolic extracts from S. nubicola on relative growth rate of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Methanolic extracts were extracted from plants from population at 2729 m a.s.l. Columns sharing the same letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05). Means and SE are shown.

Mentions: In contrast to other defence strategies, the effects of methanolic extracts were not tested in response to clipping treatment but we assessed how extracts from undamaged plants from different populations affected a generalist herbivore. The methanolic extracts from five populations of S. nubicola caused slower feeding and development and higher mortality of S. littoralis larvae. However, there were no differences among populations or along altitudinal gradient (95% confidence intervals were largely overlapping; see SupportingInformation for more details of the results – File 4). Since there were no differences in feeding, development and mortality effects, detailed analyses of particular mechanisms of toxicity and growth inhibition of methanolic extracts were done using plants from only one population (2729 m a.s.l). We found that relative consumption rate (RCR), relative growth rate (RGR, Fig. 5), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) decreased with increasing concentration of extract (P < 0.001 in all cases) but there was no effect on approximate digestibility (AD)—see SupportingInformation for more details of the results – File 4.Figure 5.


Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient
Effect of methanolic extracts from S. nubicola on relative growth rate of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Methanolic extracts were extracted from plants from population at 2729 m a.s.l. Columns sharing the same letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05). Means and SE are shown.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940502&req=5

plw026-F5: Effect of methanolic extracts from S. nubicola on relative growth rate of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Methanolic extracts were extracted from plants from population at 2729 m a.s.l. Columns sharing the same letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05). Means and SE are shown.
Mentions: In contrast to other defence strategies, the effects of methanolic extracts were not tested in response to clipping treatment but we assessed how extracts from undamaged plants from different populations affected a generalist herbivore. The methanolic extracts from five populations of S. nubicola caused slower feeding and development and higher mortality of S. littoralis larvae. However, there were no differences among populations or along altitudinal gradient (95% confidence intervals were largely overlapping; see SupportingInformation for more details of the results – File 4). Since there were no differences in feeding, development and mortality effects, detailed analyses of particular mechanisms of toxicity and growth inhibition of methanolic extracts were done using plants from only one population (2729 m a.s.l). We found that relative consumption rate (RCR), relative growth rate (RGR, Fig. 5), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) decreased with increasing concentration of extract (P < 0.001 in all cases) but there was no effect on approximate digestibility (AD)—see SupportingInformation for more details of the results – File 4.Figure 5.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

We found that Salvia nubicola distributed along a broad altitudinal gradient developed a range of defence strategies against insect herbivores. The strategies, however, do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with the altitudinal gradient along which herbivore pressure is decreasing. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding trade-offs among them could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with changes in plant-herbivore interactions as a consequence of future climate change.

No MeSH data available.