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Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient

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ABSTRACT

We found that Salvia nubicola distributed along a broad altitudinal gradient developed a range of defence strategies against insect herbivores. The strategies, however, do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with the altitudinal gradient along which herbivore pressure is decreasing. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding trade-offs among them could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with changes in plant-herbivore interactions as a consequence of future climate change.

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Effect of clipping treatment on change in plant traits after simulated herbivore damage. Effect on change in (A) number of stems, (B) number of leaves, (C) stem height, (D) shoot biomass and (E) root biomass is shown. Asterisks indicate significant differences between not clipped and clipped plants (**P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001). Details of the test results are provided in Supporting Information – File 1.
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plw026-F2: Effect of clipping treatment on change in plant traits after simulated herbivore damage. Effect on change in (A) number of stems, (B) number of leaves, (C) stem height, (D) shoot biomass and (E) root biomass is shown. Asterisks indicate significant differences between not clipped and clipped plants (**P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001). Details of the test results are provided in Supporting Information – File 1.

Mentions: Clipping treatment affected plant traits as well (Table 2, see SupportingInformation for more details of the results – File 3). Clipped plants produced 56% fewer stems, 38% more leaves and 27% higher stems than unclipped plants (P < 0.001 in all cases; Fig. 2A–C). They also produced 68% less shoot and 7% less root biomass in comparison with unclipped plants (P = 0.002 and P = 0.006, respectively; Fig. 2D and E). Plant populations produced higher stems, more shoot biomass and had lower root:shoot ratio when they originated from lower altitudes compared to higher altitudes (R2 = 0.03, P < 0.001; R2 = 0.01, P = 0.003; R2 = 0.03, P < 0.001; respectively; Fig. 3, see SupportingInformation for more details of the results – File 3). In contrast to our expectation, there were no significant interactions between population/altitude and clipping treatment. This indicates that the effect of altitude was comparable for clipped and unclipped plants and plant response to clipping was very similar across populations/altitudinal gradient (Fig. 3, see SupportingInformation for more details of results – File 3).Figure 2.


Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient
Effect of clipping treatment on change in plant traits after simulated herbivore damage. Effect on change in (A) number of stems, (B) number of leaves, (C) stem height, (D) shoot biomass and (E) root biomass is shown. Asterisks indicate significant differences between not clipped and clipped plants (**P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001). Details of the test results are provided in Supporting Information – File 1.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940502&req=5

plw026-F2: Effect of clipping treatment on change in plant traits after simulated herbivore damage. Effect on change in (A) number of stems, (B) number of leaves, (C) stem height, (D) shoot biomass and (E) root biomass is shown. Asterisks indicate significant differences between not clipped and clipped plants (**P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001). Details of the test results are provided in Supporting Information – File 1.
Mentions: Clipping treatment affected plant traits as well (Table 2, see SupportingInformation for more details of the results – File 3). Clipped plants produced 56% fewer stems, 38% more leaves and 27% higher stems than unclipped plants (P < 0.001 in all cases; Fig. 2A–C). They also produced 68% less shoot and 7% less root biomass in comparison with unclipped plants (P = 0.002 and P = 0.006, respectively; Fig. 2D and E). Plant populations produced higher stems, more shoot biomass and had lower root:shoot ratio when they originated from lower altitudes compared to higher altitudes (R2 = 0.03, P < 0.001; R2 = 0.01, P = 0.003; R2 = 0.03, P < 0.001; respectively; Fig. 3, see SupportingInformation for more details of the results – File 3). In contrast to our expectation, there were no significant interactions between population/altitude and clipping treatment. This indicates that the effect of altitude was comparable for clipped and unclipped plants and plant response to clipping was very similar across populations/altitudinal gradient (Fig. 3, see SupportingInformation for more details of results – File 3).Figure 2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

We found that Salvia nubicola distributed along a broad altitudinal gradient developed a range of defence strategies against insect herbivores. The strategies, however, do not seem to be used simultaneously in all populations even though most of them are correlated with the altitudinal gradient along which herbivore pressure is decreasing. Our study thus shows the importance of simultaneous study of different defence strategies since understanding trade-offs among them could be necessary for detecting the mechanisms by which plants are able to cope with changes in plant-herbivore interactions as a consequence of future climate change.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus