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The More (Social Group Memberships), the Merrier: Is This the Case for Asians?

Chang MX, Jetten J, Cruwys T, Haslam C, Praharso N - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: While previous studies have consistently shown that belonging to multiple groups enhances well-being, the current research proposes that for Asians, multiple group memberships (MGM) may confer fewer well-being benefits.Overall, MGM was associated with enhanced well-being in Westerners (Study 2), but not Asians (Studies 1-3).In Study 3, among Asians, MGM benefited the well-being of those who were least reluctant to enlist support.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Queensland Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

ABSTRACT
While previous studies have consistently shown that belonging to multiple groups enhances well-being, the current research proposes that for Asians, multiple group memberships (MGM) may confer fewer well-being benefits. We suggest that this is due, in part, to Asian norms about relationships and support seeking, making Asians more reluctant to enlist social support due to concerns about burdening others. Overall, MGM was associated with enhanced well-being in Westerners (Study 2), but not Asians (Studies 1-3). Study 2 showed that social support mediated the relationship between MGM and well-being for Westerners only. In Study 3, among Asians, MGM benefited the well-being of those who were least reluctant to enlist support. Finally, reviewing the MGM evidence-base to date, relative to Westerners, MGM was less beneficial for the well-being of Asians. The evidence underscores the importance of culture in influencing how likely individuals utilize their group memberships as psychological resources.

No MeSH data available.


The relationship between multiple group membership and happiness is mediated through social support, but only among Western participants. Study 2; N = 137. Standardized beta values are reported in the figure to aid interpretability, however, unstandardized coefficients were used to assess significance (as reported in the text), in accordance with recommendation (Hayes and Preacher, 2014).
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Figure 4: The relationship between multiple group membership and happiness is mediated through social support, but only among Western participants. Study 2; N = 137. Standardized beta values are reported in the figure to aid interpretability, however, unstandardized coefficients were used to assess significance (as reported in the text), in accordance with recommendation (Hayes and Preacher, 2014).

Mentions: To test whether the positive effect of multiple group membership on happiness could be explained by a difference between cultural groups in the mediating role of social support, a moderated mediation analysis with 10,000 bootstrap samples was conducted [Hayes, 2013, model 8; significance levels were calculated using unstandardized values in Hayes PROCESS model 8, as recommended by Hayes and Preacher (2014)]. Multiple group membership was included as a continuous predictor, with happiness as the outcome variable. Social support was entered as a continuous mediator, and culture (Asian vs. Western) was entered as the moderator. Analysis revealed no significant effect of multiple group membership, B = 0.14, 95% CI [−0.031, 0.307], t = 1.61, p = 0.109, or culture, B = 0.18, 95% CI [−0.013, 0.374], t = 1.85, p = 0.067, on social support. However, the interaction between multiple group membership and culture on social support was significant, B = 0.17, 95% CI [0.002, 0.335], t = 2.00, p = 0.048. Conditional indirect effects (IE) revealed a significant indirect effect of multiple group membership on happiness via social support for Western participants, IE = 0.10, standard error [SE] = 0.05, 95% CI [0.026, 0.205], but not for Asian participants, IE = −0.02, standard error [SE] = 0.04, 95% CI [−0.107, 0.059]. Results showed that the indirect effect through social support was significantly different between Asian and Western participants, B = 0.12, 95% CI [0.017, 0.267]. Culture did not moderate the effect of multiple group membership on happiness when the mediator was in the model, B = 0.07, 95% CI [−0.032, 0.170], t = 1.35, p = 0.181 (See Figure 4). This is consistent with our prediction that it is the capacity of MGM to provide support that is moderated by culture, and suggests that this mechanism fully explains the cultural differences in the relationship between MGM and well-being.


The More (Social Group Memberships), the Merrier: Is This the Case for Asians?

Chang MX, Jetten J, Cruwys T, Haslam C, Praharso N - Front Psychol (2016)

The relationship between multiple group membership and happiness is mediated through social support, but only among Western participants. Study 2; N = 137. Standardized beta values are reported in the figure to aid interpretability, however, unstandardized coefficients were used to assess significance (as reported in the text), in accordance with recommendation (Hayes and Preacher, 2014).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940425&req=5

Figure 4: The relationship between multiple group membership and happiness is mediated through social support, but only among Western participants. Study 2; N = 137. Standardized beta values are reported in the figure to aid interpretability, however, unstandardized coefficients were used to assess significance (as reported in the text), in accordance with recommendation (Hayes and Preacher, 2014).
Mentions: To test whether the positive effect of multiple group membership on happiness could be explained by a difference between cultural groups in the mediating role of social support, a moderated mediation analysis with 10,000 bootstrap samples was conducted [Hayes, 2013, model 8; significance levels were calculated using unstandardized values in Hayes PROCESS model 8, as recommended by Hayes and Preacher (2014)]. Multiple group membership was included as a continuous predictor, with happiness as the outcome variable. Social support was entered as a continuous mediator, and culture (Asian vs. Western) was entered as the moderator. Analysis revealed no significant effect of multiple group membership, B = 0.14, 95% CI [−0.031, 0.307], t = 1.61, p = 0.109, or culture, B = 0.18, 95% CI [−0.013, 0.374], t = 1.85, p = 0.067, on social support. However, the interaction between multiple group membership and culture on social support was significant, B = 0.17, 95% CI [0.002, 0.335], t = 2.00, p = 0.048. Conditional indirect effects (IE) revealed a significant indirect effect of multiple group membership on happiness via social support for Western participants, IE = 0.10, standard error [SE] = 0.05, 95% CI [0.026, 0.205], but not for Asian participants, IE = −0.02, standard error [SE] = 0.04, 95% CI [−0.107, 0.059]. Results showed that the indirect effect through social support was significantly different between Asian and Western participants, B = 0.12, 95% CI [0.017, 0.267]. Culture did not moderate the effect of multiple group membership on happiness when the mediator was in the model, B = 0.07, 95% CI [−0.032, 0.170], t = 1.35, p = 0.181 (See Figure 4). This is consistent with our prediction that it is the capacity of MGM to provide support that is moderated by culture, and suggests that this mechanism fully explains the cultural differences in the relationship between MGM and well-being.

Bottom Line: While previous studies have consistently shown that belonging to multiple groups enhances well-being, the current research proposes that for Asians, multiple group memberships (MGM) may confer fewer well-being benefits.Overall, MGM was associated with enhanced well-being in Westerners (Study 2), but not Asians (Studies 1-3).In Study 3, among Asians, MGM benefited the well-being of those who were least reluctant to enlist support.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Queensland Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

ABSTRACT
While previous studies have consistently shown that belonging to multiple groups enhances well-being, the current research proposes that for Asians, multiple group memberships (MGM) may confer fewer well-being benefits. We suggest that this is due, in part, to Asian norms about relationships and support seeking, making Asians more reluctant to enlist social support due to concerns about burdening others. Overall, MGM was associated with enhanced well-being in Westerners (Study 2), but not Asians (Studies 1-3). Study 2 showed that social support mediated the relationship between MGM and well-being for Westerners only. In Study 3, among Asians, MGM benefited the well-being of those who were least reluctant to enlist support. Finally, reviewing the MGM evidence-base to date, relative to Westerners, MGM was less beneficial for the well-being of Asians. The evidence underscores the importance of culture in influencing how likely individuals utilize their group memberships as psychological resources.

No MeSH data available.