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Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms.

Togo S, Kagawa T, Uno Y - Front Comput Neurosci (2016)

Bottom Line: The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position.As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque change, the variance components, and the index of synergy as well as the human subjects.We concluded that UCM reference feedback control can reproduce human-like joint coordination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Mechanisms Laboratories, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute InternationalKyoto, Japan; Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceTokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the "UCM reference feedback control." To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque change, the variance components, and the index of synergy as well as the human subjects. We concluded that UCM reference feedback control can reproduce human-like joint coordination. The inference for motor control of the human central nervous system based on the proposed method was discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic diagram of the measurement experiment setup. Subjects perform a one-dimensional target-tracking task while sitting in a chair and wearing a seatbelt. A head-mounted display (HMD) is secured to the individual's head. Markers are placed on the arm segments identified in Figure 2. The one-dimensional hand position of the subject and the target hand position are shown by screen of the HMD.
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Figure 2: Schematic diagram of the measurement experiment setup. Subjects perform a one-dimensional target-tracking task while sitting in a chair and wearing a seatbelt. A head-mounted display (HMD) is secured to the individual's head. Markers are placed on the arm segments identified in Figure 2. The one-dimensional hand position of the subject and the target hand position are shown by screen of the HMD.

Mentions: We used a 3D position measurement system (OPTOTRAK CERTUS, Northern Digital Inc.) to record the kinematics at 120 Hz. Infrared-ray markers with a diameter of 7 mm were placed on four anatomical landmarks of a subject's arm: the center of gyration of the shoulder, the elbow, the wrist, and the tip of the index finger (Figure 2). The index finger was fixed at an extended position so that the length of the hand (l3) was sufficiently long. A plastic board that was easy to slide on a desk was placed under the hand. Subjects secured a head-mounted display (HMD) (HMZ-T1, SONY Inc.) to their heads so as to obtain their hand positions and the target hand position in the medial–lateral direction. The refresh rate of the screen of the HMD was 60 Hz.


Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms.

Togo S, Kagawa T, Uno Y - Front Comput Neurosci (2016)

Schematic diagram of the measurement experiment setup. Subjects perform a one-dimensional target-tracking task while sitting in a chair and wearing a seatbelt. A head-mounted display (HMD) is secured to the individual's head. Markers are placed on the arm segments identified in Figure 2. The one-dimensional hand position of the subject and the target hand position are shown by screen of the HMD.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940408&req=5

Figure 2: Schematic diagram of the measurement experiment setup. Subjects perform a one-dimensional target-tracking task while sitting in a chair and wearing a seatbelt. A head-mounted display (HMD) is secured to the individual's head. Markers are placed on the arm segments identified in Figure 2. The one-dimensional hand position of the subject and the target hand position are shown by screen of the HMD.
Mentions: We used a 3D position measurement system (OPTOTRAK CERTUS, Northern Digital Inc.) to record the kinematics at 120 Hz. Infrared-ray markers with a diameter of 7 mm were placed on four anatomical landmarks of a subject's arm: the center of gyration of the shoulder, the elbow, the wrist, and the tip of the index finger (Figure 2). The index finger was fixed at an extended position so that the length of the hand (l3) was sufficiently long. A plastic board that was easy to slide on a desk was placed under the hand. Subjects secured a head-mounted display (HMD) (HMZ-T1, SONY Inc.) to their heads so as to obtain their hand positions and the target hand position in the medial–lateral direction. The refresh rate of the screen of the HMD was 60 Hz.

Bottom Line: The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position.As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque change, the variance components, and the index of synergy as well as the human subjects.We concluded that UCM reference feedback control can reproduce human-like joint coordination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Mechanisms Laboratories, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute InternationalKyoto, Japan; Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceTokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the "UCM reference feedback control." To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque change, the variance components, and the index of synergy as well as the human subjects. We concluded that UCM reference feedback control can reproduce human-like joint coordination. The inference for motor control of the human central nervous system based on the proposed method was discussed.

No MeSH data available.