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Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

Dal Santo S, Fasoli M, Negri S, D'Incà E, Vicenzi N, Guzzo F, Tornielli GB, Pezzotti M, Zenoni S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols.Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites.Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona Verona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites. The comparison of Garganega and Corvina berries showed that the metabolism of phenolic compounds is more plastic in ripening Garganega berries under different pedoclimatic conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of Corvina and Garganega transcriptomic and metabolomic changes in the general phenylpropanoid pathway during berry ripening. The third and fourth Garganega ripening stages were averaged for gene expression and the levels of phenolic compounds to facilitate alignment with the three available Corvina ripening stages and their corresponding °Brix values (Supplementary File 4) (A) Simplified representation of the general phenylpropanoid pathway in grapevine visualizing genes specifically modulated during ripening in four Corvina and four Garganega vineyards. The expression of these genes putatively leads to the biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonols/dihydroflavonols, flavan-3-ols/proanthocyanidins, and resveratrol/stilbenes. Gene expression is represented as the log2 of the raw expression value normalized by row median for each cultivar separately. (B) Relative comparison of the levels of the phenolic compounds detected in the Garganega and Corvina berries by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS at veraison (stage 1), mid-maturity (stage2), and in ripe berries (stage 3).
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Figure 7: Comparison of Corvina and Garganega transcriptomic and metabolomic changes in the general phenylpropanoid pathway during berry ripening. The third and fourth Garganega ripening stages were averaged for gene expression and the levels of phenolic compounds to facilitate alignment with the three available Corvina ripening stages and their corresponding °Brix values (Supplementary File 4) (A) Simplified representation of the general phenylpropanoid pathway in grapevine visualizing genes specifically modulated during ripening in four Corvina and four Garganega vineyards. The expression of these genes putatively leads to the biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonols/dihydroflavonols, flavan-3-ols/proanthocyanidins, and resveratrol/stilbenes. Gene expression is represented as the log2 of the raw expression value normalized by row median for each cultivar separately. (B) Relative comparison of the levels of the phenolic compounds detected in the Garganega and Corvina berries by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS at veraison (stage 1), mid-maturity (stage2), and in ripe berries (stage 3).

Mentions: The relative transcriptomic and metabolomic plasticity of Garganega and Corvina berries during ripening was determined by comparing gene expression and metabolite accumulation in the context of the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway. The gene expression and phenolic profiles for each variety at veraison (stage 1), mid-maturity (stage 2), and in fully-ripe berries (stage 3; Supplementary File 4) are represented in Figures 7A,B, respectively.


Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

Dal Santo S, Fasoli M, Negri S, D'Incà E, Vicenzi N, Guzzo F, Tornielli GB, Pezzotti M, Zenoni S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Comparison of Corvina and Garganega transcriptomic and metabolomic changes in the general phenylpropanoid pathway during berry ripening. The third and fourth Garganega ripening stages were averaged for gene expression and the levels of phenolic compounds to facilitate alignment with the three available Corvina ripening stages and their corresponding °Brix values (Supplementary File 4) (A) Simplified representation of the general phenylpropanoid pathway in grapevine visualizing genes specifically modulated during ripening in four Corvina and four Garganega vineyards. The expression of these genes putatively leads to the biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonols/dihydroflavonols, flavan-3-ols/proanthocyanidins, and resveratrol/stilbenes. Gene expression is represented as the log2 of the raw expression value normalized by row median for each cultivar separately. (B) Relative comparison of the levels of the phenolic compounds detected in the Garganega and Corvina berries by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS at veraison (stage 1), mid-maturity (stage2), and in ripe berries (stage 3).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 7: Comparison of Corvina and Garganega transcriptomic and metabolomic changes in the general phenylpropanoid pathway during berry ripening. The third and fourth Garganega ripening stages were averaged for gene expression and the levels of phenolic compounds to facilitate alignment with the three available Corvina ripening stages and their corresponding °Brix values (Supplementary File 4) (A) Simplified representation of the general phenylpropanoid pathway in grapevine visualizing genes specifically modulated during ripening in four Corvina and four Garganega vineyards. The expression of these genes putatively leads to the biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonols/dihydroflavonols, flavan-3-ols/proanthocyanidins, and resveratrol/stilbenes. Gene expression is represented as the log2 of the raw expression value normalized by row median for each cultivar separately. (B) Relative comparison of the levels of the phenolic compounds detected in the Garganega and Corvina berries by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS at veraison (stage 1), mid-maturity (stage2), and in ripe berries (stage 3).
Mentions: The relative transcriptomic and metabolomic plasticity of Garganega and Corvina berries during ripening was determined by comparing gene expression and metabolite accumulation in the context of the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway. The gene expression and phenolic profiles for each variety at veraison (stage 1), mid-maturity (stage 2), and in fully-ripe berries (stage 3; Supplementary File 4) are represented in Figures 7A,B, respectively.

Bottom Line: Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols.Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites.Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona Verona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites. The comparison of Garganega and Corvina berries showed that the metabolism of phenolic compounds is more plastic in ripening Garganega berries under different pedoclimatic conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus