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Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

Dal Santo S, Fasoli M, Negri S, D'Incà E, Vicenzi N, Guzzo F, Tornielli GB, Pezzotti M, Zenoni S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols.Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites.Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona Verona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites. The comparison of Garganega and Corvina berries showed that the metabolism of phenolic compounds is more plastic in ripening Garganega berries under different pedoclimatic conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Base peak chromatogram of a Garganega methanolic extract recorded in negative ionization mode during RP-HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The peaks numbers correspond to the metabolites identified in the Supplementary File 1 (column A) (B) Bidimensional RP-HPLC-DAD chromatogram recorded within the wavelength range 190–600 nm. F3O (flavan-3-ols and oligomers), HCA (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), DH (dihydroflavonol glycosides), FV (flavonol glycosides). The upper bar refers to the percentage of solvent B within the mobile phase.
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Figure 2: (A) Base peak chromatogram of a Garganega methanolic extract recorded in negative ionization mode during RP-HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The peaks numbers correspond to the metabolites identified in the Supplementary File 1 (column A) (B) Bidimensional RP-HPLC-DAD chromatogram recorded within the wavelength range 190–600 nm. F3O (flavan-3-ols and oligomers), HCA (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), DH (dihydroflavonol glycosides), FV (flavonol glycosides). The upper bar refers to the percentage of solvent B within the mobile phase.

Mentions: Untargeted RP-HPLC-ESI-MS analysis was used to characterize the Garganega berry metabolome at each of the four vineyards (AP, VP, VH1, VH2) at four ripening stages, focusing on moderately polar metabolites such as phenolic compounds. Data processing revealed 267 signals in negative ionization mode (Figure 2). The comparison of the fragmentation patterns with an in-house library of authentic standards and literature data led to the putative identification of 64 metabolites mainly representing the flavan-3-ols and their oligomers, phenolic acids, flavonol, and dihydroflavonol glycosides (Figure 2, Supplementary File 1). The major flavan-3-ol monomers were catechin (the most abundant) followed by epicatechin and two epigallocatechin isomers, whereas different types of oligomers were detected, including dimeric and trimeric procyanidins and prodelphinidins. Two galloylated derivatives were also identified as epicatechin gallate and procyanidin dimer gallate, and one compound was tentatively identified as a glycosilated procyanidin dimer (Maldini et al., 2009).


Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

Dal Santo S, Fasoli M, Negri S, D'Incà E, Vicenzi N, Guzzo F, Tornielli GB, Pezzotti M, Zenoni S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

(A) Base peak chromatogram of a Garganega methanolic extract recorded in negative ionization mode during RP-HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The peaks numbers correspond to the metabolites identified in the Supplementary File 1 (column A) (B) Bidimensional RP-HPLC-DAD chromatogram recorded within the wavelength range 190–600 nm. F3O (flavan-3-ols and oligomers), HCA (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), DH (dihydroflavonol glycosides), FV (flavonol glycosides). The upper bar refers to the percentage of solvent B within the mobile phase.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940403&req=5

Figure 2: (A) Base peak chromatogram of a Garganega methanolic extract recorded in negative ionization mode during RP-HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The peaks numbers correspond to the metabolites identified in the Supplementary File 1 (column A) (B) Bidimensional RP-HPLC-DAD chromatogram recorded within the wavelength range 190–600 nm. F3O (flavan-3-ols and oligomers), HCA (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), DH (dihydroflavonol glycosides), FV (flavonol glycosides). The upper bar refers to the percentage of solvent B within the mobile phase.
Mentions: Untargeted RP-HPLC-ESI-MS analysis was used to characterize the Garganega berry metabolome at each of the four vineyards (AP, VP, VH1, VH2) at four ripening stages, focusing on moderately polar metabolites such as phenolic compounds. Data processing revealed 267 signals in negative ionization mode (Figure 2). The comparison of the fragmentation patterns with an in-house library of authentic standards and literature data led to the putative identification of 64 metabolites mainly representing the flavan-3-ols and their oligomers, phenolic acids, flavonol, and dihydroflavonol glycosides (Figure 2, Supplementary File 1). The major flavan-3-ol monomers were catechin (the most abundant) followed by epicatechin and two epigallocatechin isomers, whereas different types of oligomers were detected, including dimeric and trimeric procyanidins and prodelphinidins. Two galloylated derivatives were also identified as epicatechin gallate and procyanidin dimer gallate, and one compound was tentatively identified as a glycosilated procyanidin dimer (Maldini et al., 2009).

Bottom Line: Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols.Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites.Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona Verona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites. The comparison of Garganega and Corvina berries showed that the metabolism of phenolic compounds is more plastic in ripening Garganega berries under different pedoclimatic conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus