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Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

Dal Santo S, Fasoli M, Negri S, D'Incà E, Vicenzi N, Guzzo F, Tornielli GB, Pezzotti M, Zenoni S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols.Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites.Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona Verona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites. The comparison of Garganega and Corvina berries showed that the metabolism of phenolic compounds is more plastic in ripening Garganega berries under different pedoclimatic conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Overview of the Garganega berry samples used for transcriptome and metabolome analysis. (A) Sampling locations near Verona, Italy. Four different vineyards were chosen from the Soave wine production macro-area. AP (Alluvial Plain, yellow box); VP (Volcanic Plain, brown box); VH1 (Volcanic Hill 1, brown box); VH2 (Volcanic Hill 2, brown box). (B) Images of biweekly samples showing Garganega grape cluster maturation in four vineyards. (C) Grape berry ripening as shown by sugar accumulation from veraison through to harvest (four stages) in the four vineyards. TSS = total soluble solids.
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Figure 1: Overview of the Garganega berry samples used for transcriptome and metabolome analysis. (A) Sampling locations near Verona, Italy. Four different vineyards were chosen from the Soave wine production macro-area. AP (Alluvial Plain, yellow box); VP (Volcanic Plain, brown box); VH1 (Volcanic Hill 1, brown box); VH2 (Volcanic Hill 2, brown box). (B) Images of biweekly samples showing Garganega grape cluster maturation in four vineyards. (C) Grape berry ripening as shown by sugar accumulation from veraison through to harvest (four stages) in the four vineyards. TSS = total soluble solids.

Mentions: Vitis vinifera cv. Garganega clone four berries were harvested from four different vineyards surrounding the Soave area, one of the most important wine production macro-areas in the province of Verona, Italy (Figure 1A). The vineyards were selected to maximize differences in environmental conditions (altitude and soil type) while minimizing differences in agricultural practices (training system, orientation of the rows, planting layout, vineyard age, and rootstock type; Table 1). The selected vineyards were characterized by a hill (VH1 and VH2) or plain (AP and VP) altitudinal position, and by an alluvial (AP) or volcanic (VP, VH1, and VH2) soil type (Table 1 and Figures 1A,B). The alluvial area (AP) featured almost twice the proportion of clay particles in the soil compared to the volcanic sites, among which the plain site (VP) was characterized by a silty soil with the lowest percentage of sand. VH1 and VH2 had similar soil textures, despite being located at different altitudes. The calcium carbonate component (total and active) was much lower in the VP, VH1, and VH2 vineyard sites than in the more calcareous alluvial AP site (Table 1). This is typical for “ando soils,” which developed on volcanic ash. Meteorological parameters were recorded, and the daily temperature data showed that more heat accumulated (heat summation per month) in the hillside areas in July, August, and September, but overall the heat summation was similar across all four vineyards (Supplementary Figure 1). Rainfall data showed greater variability among the areas albeit with no significant differences in terms of mm of rain per year, however VH2 was a more rainy area during the growing period (April 1st to October 31st in the Northern Hemisphere). Berry samples were harvested from all vineyards on the same day and three biological replicates were taken at each of the four developmental stages (Figure 1B). The TSS content was verified by measuring °Brix values (Figure 1C). Although the sampling date was aligned to the first developmental stage, the dynamics of TSS accumulation were unique to each vineyard. Interestingly, the two hillside vineyards showed the most divergent behavior: VH2 showed a steady increase in the TSS content whereas VH1 scored lowest for the accumulation of TSS.


Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

Dal Santo S, Fasoli M, Negri S, D'Incà E, Vicenzi N, Guzzo F, Tornielli GB, Pezzotti M, Zenoni S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Overview of the Garganega berry samples used for transcriptome and metabolome analysis. (A) Sampling locations near Verona, Italy. Four different vineyards were chosen from the Soave wine production macro-area. AP (Alluvial Plain, yellow box); VP (Volcanic Plain, brown box); VH1 (Volcanic Hill 1, brown box); VH2 (Volcanic Hill 2, brown box). (B) Images of biweekly samples showing Garganega grape cluster maturation in four vineyards. (C) Grape berry ripening as shown by sugar accumulation from veraison through to harvest (four stages) in the four vineyards. TSS = total soluble solids.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940403&req=5

Figure 1: Overview of the Garganega berry samples used for transcriptome and metabolome analysis. (A) Sampling locations near Verona, Italy. Four different vineyards were chosen from the Soave wine production macro-area. AP (Alluvial Plain, yellow box); VP (Volcanic Plain, brown box); VH1 (Volcanic Hill 1, brown box); VH2 (Volcanic Hill 2, brown box). (B) Images of biweekly samples showing Garganega grape cluster maturation in four vineyards. (C) Grape berry ripening as shown by sugar accumulation from veraison through to harvest (four stages) in the four vineyards. TSS = total soluble solids.
Mentions: Vitis vinifera cv. Garganega clone four berries were harvested from four different vineyards surrounding the Soave area, one of the most important wine production macro-areas in the province of Verona, Italy (Figure 1A). The vineyards were selected to maximize differences in environmental conditions (altitude and soil type) while minimizing differences in agricultural practices (training system, orientation of the rows, planting layout, vineyard age, and rootstock type; Table 1). The selected vineyards were characterized by a hill (VH1 and VH2) or plain (AP and VP) altitudinal position, and by an alluvial (AP) or volcanic (VP, VH1, and VH2) soil type (Table 1 and Figures 1A,B). The alluvial area (AP) featured almost twice the proportion of clay particles in the soil compared to the volcanic sites, among which the plain site (VP) was characterized by a silty soil with the lowest percentage of sand. VH1 and VH2 had similar soil textures, despite being located at different altitudes. The calcium carbonate component (total and active) was much lower in the VP, VH1, and VH2 vineyard sites than in the more calcareous alluvial AP site (Table 1). This is typical for “ando soils,” which developed on volcanic ash. Meteorological parameters were recorded, and the daily temperature data showed that more heat accumulated (heat summation per month) in the hillside areas in July, August, and September, but overall the heat summation was similar across all four vineyards (Supplementary Figure 1). Rainfall data showed greater variability among the areas albeit with no significant differences in terms of mm of rain per year, however VH2 was a more rainy area during the growing period (April 1st to October 31st in the Northern Hemisphere). Berry samples were harvested from all vineyards on the same day and three biological replicates were taken at each of the four developmental stages (Figure 1B). The TSS content was verified by measuring °Brix values (Figure 1C). Although the sampling date was aligned to the first developmental stage, the dynamics of TSS accumulation were unique to each vineyard. Interestingly, the two hillside vineyards showed the most divergent behavior: VH2 showed a steady increase in the TSS content whereas VH1 scored lowest for the accumulation of TSS.

Bottom Line: Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols.Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites.Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona Verona, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding metabolites. The comparison of Garganega and Corvina berries showed that the metabolism of phenolic compounds is more plastic in ripening Garganega berries under different pedoclimatic conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus