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No Interrelation of Motor Planning and Executive Functions across Young Ages.

Wunsch K, Pfister R, Henning A, Aschersleben G, Weigelt M - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task).Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults.These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg Freiburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The present study examined the developmental trajectories of motor planning and executive functioning in children. To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task). Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults. Results suggested (1) a positive developmental trajectory for each of the sub-tests, with better task performance as children get older; (2) that the performance in the separate tasks was not correlated across participants in the different age groups; and (3) that there was no relationship between performance in the motor tasks and in the cognitive tasks used in the present study when controlling for age. These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

No MeSH data available.


Percentage of participants showing end-state comfort in each of the three trials for the high and the low target platform.
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Figure 7: Percentage of participants showing end-state comfort in each of the three trials for the high and the low target platform.

Mentions: Considering all children, a Kruskal-Wallis Test revealed the differences between the age groups to be statistically significant in Trial 1 and Trial 3 for the high target platform [Trial 1 = 17.07, p < 0.05; Trial 2 = 11.37, p > 0.05; Trial 3 = 22.09, p < 0.01] and in all trials for the low target platform [Trial 1 = 21.78, p < 0.01; Trial 2 = 25.48, p < 0.001; Trial 3 = 28.98, p < 0.001]. Again, it was investigated whether participants change their grasp height across the trial repetitions and thus, exhibit short-term learning effects over the course of the six trials. Figure 7 depicts the percentage of children in each age group performing in a manner consistent with second-order motor planning in each of the three trials, in the left graph for the high target platform, in the right graph for the low target platform.


No Interrelation of Motor Planning and Executive Functions across Young Ages.

Wunsch K, Pfister R, Henning A, Aschersleben G, Weigelt M - Front Psychol (2016)

Percentage of participants showing end-state comfort in each of the three trials for the high and the low target platform.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940395&req=5

Figure 7: Percentage of participants showing end-state comfort in each of the three trials for the high and the low target platform.
Mentions: Considering all children, a Kruskal-Wallis Test revealed the differences between the age groups to be statistically significant in Trial 1 and Trial 3 for the high target platform [Trial 1 = 17.07, p < 0.05; Trial 2 = 11.37, p > 0.05; Trial 3 = 22.09, p < 0.01] and in all trials for the low target platform [Trial 1 = 21.78, p < 0.01; Trial 2 = 25.48, p < 0.001; Trial 3 = 28.98, p < 0.001]. Again, it was investigated whether participants change their grasp height across the trial repetitions and thus, exhibit short-term learning effects over the course of the six trials. Figure 7 depicts the percentage of children in each age group performing in a manner consistent with second-order motor planning in each of the three trials, in the left graph for the high target platform, in the right graph for the low target platform.

Bottom Line: To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task).Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults.These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg Freiburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The present study examined the developmental trajectories of motor planning and executive functioning in children. To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task). Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults. Results suggested (1) a positive developmental trajectory for each of the sub-tests, with better task performance as children get older; (2) that the performance in the separate tasks was not correlated across participants in the different age groups; and (3) that there was no relationship between performance in the motor tasks and in the cognitive tasks used in the present study when controlling for age. These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

No MeSH data available.