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No Interrelation of Motor Planning and Executive Functions across Young Ages.

Wunsch K, Pfister R, Henning A, Aschersleben G, Weigelt M - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task).Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults.These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg Freiburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The present study examined the developmental trajectories of motor planning and executive functioning in children. To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task). Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults. Results suggested (1) a positive developmental trajectory for each of the sub-tests, with better task performance as children get older; (2) that the performance in the separate tasks was not correlated across participants in the different age groups; and (3) that there was no relationship between performance in the motor tasks and in the cognitive tasks used in the present study when controlling for age. These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

No MeSH data available.


Percentage of participants in each group showing end-state comfort in the sword-rotation task in at least seven out of the 12 uncritical trials and in at least four out of the six critical trials.
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Figure 4: Percentage of participants in each group showing end-state comfort in the sword-rotation task in at least seven out of the 12 uncritical trials and in at least four out of the six critical trials.

Mentions: Figure 4 illustrates the mean percentage of participants in each group who showed ESC planning for both conditions. In the uncritical trials, all participants adopted a grip with the thumb being oriented toward the blade, and thus, ended in a comfortable position when inserting the sword into the box. In the critical trials, however, only 43% of the 3- and 4-year old children showed sensitivity for ESC planning. This amount increased up to 64% in the 6-year-olds. Again, similar to the bar-transport-task, even if more delayed, a stagnation of the developmental trajectory can be detected in 7-to-10-year old children, with a mean of 75% of the children showing ESC. All adults showed ESC in the six critical trials (see Table 2). A chi-square analysis showed these effects in the proportion of children showing ESC in the critical trials to be marginally significant, = 12.89, p = 0.075.


No Interrelation of Motor Planning and Executive Functions across Young Ages.

Wunsch K, Pfister R, Henning A, Aschersleben G, Weigelt M - Front Psychol (2016)

Percentage of participants in each group showing end-state comfort in the sword-rotation task in at least seven out of the 12 uncritical trials and in at least four out of the six critical trials.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940395&req=5

Figure 4: Percentage of participants in each group showing end-state comfort in the sword-rotation task in at least seven out of the 12 uncritical trials and in at least four out of the six critical trials.
Mentions: Figure 4 illustrates the mean percentage of participants in each group who showed ESC planning for both conditions. In the uncritical trials, all participants adopted a grip with the thumb being oriented toward the blade, and thus, ended in a comfortable position when inserting the sword into the box. In the critical trials, however, only 43% of the 3- and 4-year old children showed sensitivity for ESC planning. This amount increased up to 64% in the 6-year-olds. Again, similar to the bar-transport-task, even if more delayed, a stagnation of the developmental trajectory can be detected in 7-to-10-year old children, with a mean of 75% of the children showing ESC. All adults showed ESC in the six critical trials (see Table 2). A chi-square analysis showed these effects in the proportion of children showing ESC in the critical trials to be marginally significant, = 12.89, p = 0.075.

Bottom Line: To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task).Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults.These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg Freiburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The present study examined the developmental trajectories of motor planning and executive functioning in children. To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task). Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults. Results suggested (1) a positive developmental trajectory for each of the sub-tests, with better task performance as children get older; (2) that the performance in the separate tasks was not correlated across participants in the different age groups; and (3) that there was no relationship between performance in the motor tasks and in the cognitive tasks used in the present study when controlling for age. These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

No MeSH data available.