Limits...
No Interrelation of Motor Planning and Executive Functions across Young Ages.

Wunsch K, Pfister R, Henning A, Aschersleben G, Weigelt M - Front Psychol (2016)

Bottom Line: To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task).Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults.These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg Freiburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The present study examined the developmental trajectories of motor planning and executive functioning in children. To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task). Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults. Results suggested (1) a positive developmental trajectory for each of the sub-tests, with better task performance as children get older; (2) that the performance in the separate tasks was not correlated across participants in the different age groups; and (3) that there was no relationship between performance in the motor tasks and in the cognitive tasks used in the present study when controlling for age. These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage of the participants in each group showing end-state comfort in at least two out of three trials in the uncritical (initial overhand grip) and critical (initial underhand grip) conditions in the bar-transport-task.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940395&req=5

Figure 2: Percentage of the participants in each group showing end-state comfort in at least two out of three trials in the uncritical (initial overhand grip) and critical (initial underhand grip) conditions in the bar-transport-task.

Mentions: Figure 2 illustrates the mean percentage of participants in each group who showed ESC planning. In the uncritical trials, all participants in all age groups adopted an overhand grasp in at least two out of the three uncritical trials and therefore ended in a comfortable end position. In the critical trials, only 24% of the 3-year old children showed sensitivity for ESC planning. This amount increased up to 62% in the 5-year-olds (see Table 2). Here, a stagnation of the developmental trajectory can be seen in 5-to-8-year old children, with a mean of 63% showing ESC planning. Then, the percentage of participants showing ESC increased again up to 95% in the 10-year-olds, which is comparable to adult behavior. A chi-square analysis showed these differences in the proportion of children showing ESC in the critical trials to be significant, = 34.93, p < 0.001.


No Interrelation of Motor Planning and Executive Functions across Young Ages.

Wunsch K, Pfister R, Henning A, Aschersleben G, Weigelt M - Front Psychol (2016)

Percentage of the participants in each group showing end-state comfort in at least two out of three trials in the uncritical (initial overhand grip) and critical (initial underhand grip) conditions in the bar-transport-task.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4940395&req=5

Figure 2: Percentage of the participants in each group showing end-state comfort in at least two out of three trials in the uncritical (initial overhand grip) and critical (initial underhand grip) conditions in the bar-transport-task.
Mentions: Figure 2 illustrates the mean percentage of participants in each group who showed ESC planning. In the uncritical trials, all participants in all age groups adopted an overhand grasp in at least two out of the three uncritical trials and therefore ended in a comfortable end position. In the critical trials, only 24% of the 3-year old children showed sensitivity for ESC planning. This amount increased up to 62% in the 5-year-olds (see Table 2). Here, a stagnation of the developmental trajectory can be seen in 5-to-8-year old children, with a mean of 63% showing ESC planning. Then, the percentage of participants showing ESC increased again up to 95% in the 10-year-olds, which is comparable to adult behavior. A chi-square analysis showed these differences in the proportion of children showing ESC in the critical trials to be significant, = 34.93, p < 0.001.

Bottom Line: To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task).Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults.These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg Freiburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The present study examined the developmental trajectories of motor planning and executive functioning in children. To this end, we tested 217 participants with three motor tasks, measuring anticipatory planning abilities (i.e., the bar-transport-task, the sword-rotation-task and the grasp-height-task), and three cognitive tasks, measuring executive functions (i.e., the Tower-of-Hanoi-task, the Mosaic-task, and the D2-attention-endurance-task). Children were aged between 3 and 10 years and were separated into age groups by 1-year bins, resulting in a total of eight groups of children and an additional group of adults. Results suggested (1) a positive developmental trajectory for each of the sub-tests, with better task performance as children get older; (2) that the performance in the separate tasks was not correlated across participants in the different age groups; and (3) that there was no relationship between performance in the motor tasks and in the cognitive tasks used in the present study when controlling for age. These results suggest that both, motor planning and executive functions are rather heterogeneous domains of cognitive functioning with fewer interdependencies than often suggested.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus